Archive for the 'Open Access' Category

Open Access: Freedom for Scholarship in the Internet Age (Draft)

Posted in Open Access, Scholarly Communication on January 23rd, 2012

Heather Morrison has released a draft of her doctoral thesis Freedom for Scholarship in the Internet Age.

Here's an excerpt:

The purpose of this thesis is to further the work of transitioning to an open access scholarly communication system designed to support and prioritize scholarship and the public good rather than profit. The method will involve analysis of key underlying historical trends in society and how they impact scholarly communication, as well as original empirical work on the growth of open access, economic analysis to inform economic aspects of transition, and a case study of scholarly communication in the discipline of communication.

| Digital Scholarship's Digital/Print Books | Digital Scholarship |

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    Open Access: PEER Economics Report [Final Report]

    Posted in Digital Repositories, Institutional Repositories, Open Access, Publishing, Reports and White Papers, Self-Archiving on January 22nd, 2012

    PEER (Publishing and the Ecology of European Research) has released the final version of the PEER Economics Report.

    Here's an excerpt:

    This study considers the effect of large-scale deposit on scholarly research publication and dissemination (sharing of research outputs), beginning with the analysis of publishers and institutions managing repositories and their sustainability. The study associates costs with specific activities, performed by key actors involved in research registration, certification, dissemination and digital management: authors, the scholarly community, editors, publishers, libraries, readers and funding agencies. Contrary to most of the existing literature, the study analyses cost structures of individual organizations. The focus of this study is therefore to provide context for the costs to specific organizations and to their choices in terms of scale and scope. . . .

    This study analyses 22 organizations involved with journal article publication and dissemination. Data were gathered via literature and public document analysis, as well as through individual in-depth interviews in order to assess the cost structure of publishers, OA journal publishers and institutions managing repositories and the conditions for their sustainability.

    | Digital Scholarship's Digital Bibliographies | Digital Scholarship |

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      Michael Nielsen Named as SPARC Innovator

      Posted in Open Access, Open Science, People in the News on January 18th, 2012

      Michael Nielsen has been named as a SPARC Innovator.

      Here's an excerpt from the announcement:

      While Nielsen is not alone in promoting the open sharing of data and research to advance science, he has been in the spotlight this fall as an advocate for the cause. The Open Society Foundations supported sending him on an awareness-raising tour on Open Science. In three months, Nielsen did 33 talks in 17 cities—from small gatherings of high school students in Lithuania to a 1,000-plus audience in Canada. (The recording on ted.com of his presentation at TEDxWaterloo has received more than 150,000 hits.). . .

      For being a thought leader of how doing science in the open can promote change and bringing the discussion to a new level, SPARC honors Nielsen as the January 2012 SPARC Innovator. "Michael is an incredibly bright scientist and researcher in his own right," says Heather Joseph, executive director of SPARC. "But he also has a view beyond 30,000 feet of the entire scientific enterprise, and the value that open brings to the table." Nielsen has found a way to engage the general public in this issue to understand why it matters. In his push to open up the scientific process, he has helped advance the entire open-access movement. "He is a voice into the mainstream that has been sorely lacking," says Joseph.

      | Digital Scholarship's Digital Bibliographies | Digital Scholarship |

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        ARL, Johns Hopkins University Libraries, and SPARC Reply to White House RFI on Public Access to Digital Data

        Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Access, Open Science on January 16th, 2012

        The Association of Research Libraries, the Johns Hopkins University Libraries, and SPARC have replied to the White House's Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting from Federally Funded Scientific Research.

        Here's an excerpt:

        Question 1

        What specific Federal policies would encourage public access to and the preservation of broadly valuable digital data resulting from federally funded scientific research, to grow the U.S. economy and improve the productivity of the American scientific enterprise?

        Comment 1

        The most effective Federal policies in this regard would mandate digital data deposit into publicly accessible repositories. In the absence of such policies, there are already cases of digital data which have been lost or remain inaccessible or accessible only with high barriers. While laudable efforts such as the NSF and NIH data management plans move the community in the direction of supporting U.S. economic growth and productivity, the reality is that many researchers continue to strictly interpret the requirement as sharing data based on specific requests or personal provisions. The Federal policy framework should move public access to digital data away from the current idiosyncratic environment to a systematic approach that lowers barriers to data access, discovery, sharing and re-use.

        Instead of relying upon individual investigators to interpret and support public access through a point to point network (e.g., researcher provides digital data upon request), Federal policies should ensure that public access can occur through well managed, sustained, preservation archives that enable a legally and policy compliant peer to peer model for sharing. A useful metric for full-fledged public access to digital data is whether someone (or some machine) other than the original data producer can discover, access, interpret and use the digital data without contacting the original data producer.

        See also Columbia University Libraries/Information Services' reply and the Creative Commons' reply.

        | Transforming Scholarly Publishing through Open Access: A Bibliography | Digital Scholarship |

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          "From Stacks to the Web: The Transformation of Academic Library Collecting"

          Posted in Digitization, E-Books, Libraries, Mass Digitizaton, Open Access, Publishing, Research Libraries on January 16th, 2012

          College & Research Libraries has released a preprint of "From Stacks to the Web: The Transformation of Academic Library Collecting" by David W. Lewis.

          Here's an excerpt:

          The existence of a ubiquitous and cheap worldwide communication’s network that increasingly makes documents easily and freely available will require a transformation of academic library collecting practice. It will be driven by a number of specific developments including: the digitization of content; the development of print repositories; the development of e-readers and print-on-demand publishing; the growth of open access; challenges to establish academic publishing organizations; and the growth of new forms of scholarship based on openness and social productivity. If academic libraries are to be successful, they will need to: deconstruct legacy print collections; move from item-by-item book selection to purchase-on-demand and subscriptions; manage the transition to open access journals; focus on curating unique items; and develop new mechanisms for funding national infrastructure.

          | E-science and Academic Libraries Bibliography | Digital Scholarship |

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            Research Works Act (H.R. 3699) Threatens Open Access to Publicly Funded Research

            Posted in Legislation and Government Regulation, Open Access, Self-Archiving on January 9th, 2012

            Darrell Issa (R-CA) and Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) have introduced the Research Works Act (H.R. 3699), which is aimed at eliminating federal open access policies such as the NIH Public Access Policy. The key passage of the bill states:

            No Federal agency may adopt, implement, maintain, continue, or otherwise engage in any policy, program, or other activity that—

            1. causes, permits, or authorizes network dissemination of any private-sector research work without the prior consent of the publisher of such work; or
            2. requires that any actual or prospective author, or the employer of such an actual or prospective author, assent to network dissemination of a private-sector research work.

            The Alliance for Taxpayer Access has issued a call to action and a draft letter that can be modified and sent to legislators. Here's an excerpt from the call:

            Supporters of public access need to speak out against this proposed legislation. We strongly urge you to contact these offices to express your opposition TODAY, or as soon as possible. To support you, draft letter text is available.

            Also, don’t miss a key opportunity to express support for the expansion of the NIH public-access policy to other federal science and technology agencies. There are six days left to respond to the White House requests for information (RFI) on public access to scholarly publications and data (http://www.taxpayeraccess.org/action/action_access/11-1117.shtml).

            Read more about it at "Publishers Applaud 'Research Works Act,' Bipartisan Legislation to End Government Mandates on Private-Sector Scholarly Publishing," "Research Works Act H.R.3699: The Private Publishing Tail Trying to Wag the Public Research Dog, Yet Again," and "Trying to Roll Back the Clock on Open Access: Research Works Act Introduced."

            [Regular DigitalKoans posts resume on 1/17/12.]

            | Transforming Scholarly Publishing through Open Access: A Bibliography | Digital Scholarship |

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              "Is Free Inevitable in Scholarly Communication? The Economics of Open Access"

              Posted in Open Access on December 7th, 2011

              Caroline Sutton has published "Is Free Inevitable in Scholarly Communication? The Economics of Open Access" in College & Research Libraries News.

              Here's an excerpt:

              In this article I would like to make the case that a change in the delivery of scientific content and in the business models for delivering scholarly communication was inevitable from the moment journals moved online, even if much of this change is yet to come. By applying a thesis put forth by Chris Anderson in his 2009 book Free, I will argue that given that scholarly journals are now digital products, they are subject to very different economic principles and social forces than their print ancestors.

              | Digital Scholarship's Digital Bibliographies | Digital Scholarship |

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                "The Open Knowledge Foundation: Open Data Means Better Science"

                Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Access, Open Science on December 7th, 2011

                Jennifer C. Molloy has published "The Open Knowledge Foundation: Open Data Means Better Science" in PLoS Biology.

                Here's an excerpt:

                Data provides the evidence for the published body of scientific knowledge, which is the foundation for all scientific progress. The more data is made openly available in a useful manner, the greater the level of transparency and reproducibility and hence the more efficient the scientific process becomes, to the benefit of society. This viewpoint is becoming mainstream among many funders, publishers, scientists, and other stakeholders in research, but barriers to achieving widespread publication of open data remain. The Open Data in Science working group at the Open Knowledge Foundation is a community that works to develop tools, applications, datasets, and guidelines to promote the open sharing of scientific data. This article focuses on the Open Knowledge Definition and the Panton Principles for Open Data in Science. We also discuss some of the tools the group has developed to facilitate the generation and use of open data and the potential uses that we hope will encourage further movement towards an open scientific knowledge commons.

                | Digital Scholarship's Digital Bibliographies | Digital Scholarship |

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                  "Open Access Journals from Society Publishers"

                  Posted in Open Access, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on December 5th, 2011

                  Peter Suber has published "Open Access Journals from Society Publishers" in the latest issue of the SPARC Open Access Newsletter.

                  Here's an excerpt:

                  How many scholarly societies publish OA journals, and how many OA journals do they publish? Four years ago (November 2007), Caroline Sutton and I released the first edition of our inventory answering those questions, and today we release the second edition.

                  Cutting to the chase: Our 2007 list turned up 425 societies publishing 450 full or non-hybrid OA journals. Our 2011 list shows 530 societies publishing 616 full OA journals. . . .

                  In 2007, only 15 (3%) society OA journals used CC licenses. In 2011, 92 (15%) do so, a small fraction but a distinct improvement. An additional 45 journals (7%) let authors retain copyright but do not publish under open licenses. Despite the improvement from four years ago, these are deeply disappointing numbers. As of last week (November 25, 2011) 1,727 or 24% of all the OA journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals used CC licenses. Hence, society OA journals use CC licenses at an even lower rate than OA journals in general.

                  | Digital Scholarship's Digital/Print Books | Digital Scholarship |

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                    The Problem of the Yellow Milkmaid: A Business Model Perspective on Open Metadata

                    Posted in Metadata, Open Access on December 1st, 2011

                    Europeana has released The Problem of the Yellow Milkmaid: A Business Model Perspective on Open Metadata

                    Here's an excerpt:

                    Europeana's extensive consultation with the heritage sector, including dozens of workshops, has explored in detail the risks and rewards of open data from different perspectives. The most helpful way of framing this discussion has proven to be around the business model of cultural heritage organisations. The findings in this white paper are drawn from a July 2011 workshop in which key actors from museums, libraries and archives evaluated their metadata within the context of their own business model. Placing metadata within their business models gave workshop participants the opportunity to assess the monetary and reputational utility of metadata to their respective cultural organisations.

                    | Digital Scholarship's Digital/Print Books | Digital Scholarship |

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                      Costs and Benefits of Data Provision: Report to the Australian National Data Service

                      Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Access, Reports and White Papers on November 28th, 2011

                      The Australian National Data Service has released Costs and Benefits of Data Provision: Report to the Australian National Data Service by John Houghton.

                      Here's an excerpt:

                      This report presents case studies exploring the costs and benefits that PSI [Public Sector Information] producing agencies and their users experience in making information freely available, and preliminary estimates of the wider economic impacts of open access to PSI. In doing so, it outlines a possibly method for cost-benefit analysis at the agency level and explores the data requirements for such an analysis —recognising that few agencies will have all of the data required. . . .

                      What this study demonstrates is that the direct and measurable benefits of making PSI available freely and without restrictions on use typically outweigh the costs. When one adds the longerterm benefits that we cannot fully measure, and may not even foresee, the case for open access appears to be strong.

                      | Transforming Scholarly Publishing through Open Access: A Bibliography | Digital Scholarship |

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                        "Public Access and Use of Health Research: An Exploratory Study of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy Using Interviews and Surveys of Health Personnel"

                        Posted in Open Access on November 27th, 2011

                        Jamie O'Keeffe, John Willinsky, and Lauren Maggio have published "Public Access and Use of Health Research: An Exploratory Study of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Policy Using Interviews and Surveys of Health Personnel" in the Journal of Medical Internet Research.

                        Here's an excerpt from:

                        Conclusions: The results provide grounds for expecting the NIH Public Access Policy to have a positive impact on EBP [Evidence-Based Practice] and health care more generally given that between a quarter and a third of participants in this study (1) frequently accessed research literature, (2) expressed an interest in having greater access, and (3) were aware of the policy and expect it to have an impact on their accessing research literature in the future. Results also indicate the value of promoting a greater awareness of the NIH policy, providing training and education in the location and use of the literature, and continuing improvements in the organization of biomedical research for health personnel use.

                        | Open Access Bibliography: Liberating Scholarly Literature with E-Prints and Open Access Journals | Digital Scholarship |

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