Archive for the 'Scholarly Communication' Category

Research Data Curation Bibliography, Version 4

Posted in Bibliographies, Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Digital Curation & Digital Preservation, Digital Scholarship Publications, Scholarly Communication on June 23rd, 2014

Digital Scholarship has released version 4 of the Research Data Curation Bibliography. This selective bibliography includes over 320 English-language articles and technical reports that are useful in understanding the curation of digital research data in academic and other research institutions.

The "digital curation" concept is still evolving. In "Digital Curation and Trusted Repositories: Steps toward Success," Christopher A. Lee and Helen R. Tibbo define digital curation as follows:

Digital curation involves selection and appraisal by creators and archivists; evolving provision of intellectual access; redundant storage; data transformations; and, for some materials, a commitment to long-term preservation. Digital curation is stewardship that provides for the reproducibility and re-use of authentic digital data and other digital assets. Development of trustworthy and durable digital repositories; principles of sound metadata creation and capture; use of open standards for file formats and data encoding; and the promotion of information management literacy are all essential to the longevity of digital resources and the success of curation efforts.

Most sources have been published from January 2009 through June 2014; however, a limited number of earlier key sources are also included.

The bibliography includes links to freely available versions of included works. If such versions are unavailable, links to the publishers' descriptions are provided.

It is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

For broader coverage of the digital curation literature, see the author's Digital Curation Bibliography: Preservation and Stewardship of Scholarly Works,which presents over 650 English-language articles, books, and technical reports, and the Digital Curation Bibliography: Preservation and Stewardship of Scholarly Works, 2012 Supplement, which presents over 130 additional sources.

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    A Quarter-Century as an Open Access Publisher

    Posted in Bibliographies, Digital Scholarship Publications, Open Access, Publishing, Scholarly Books, Scholarly Communication, Scholarly Journals, Social Media/Web 2.0 on June 23rd, 2014

    Introduction

    Twenty-five years? It's hard to believe I've been doing this since Madonna's "Express Yourself" was in the top 40. I don't typically write about personal matters in DigitalKoans, but here's a mini-memoir, so please indulge me.

    Here are the highlights of my open access publishing activities since June 1989. A full chronology is also available.

    PACS-L and the The Public-Access Computer Systems Review

    Twenty-five years ago I went to the ALA Annual Conference and passed out a few leaflets announcing the Public-Access Computer Systems Forum (PACS-L), a LISTSERV list intended to foster discussion on the then-revolutionary idea that library users could access digital information themselves instead of submitting database search requests to librarians. At the time, PCs were being used to provide access to databases on CD-ROMs and some avant-garde libraries were providing access to "locally-mounted databases" on minicomputers. In 1989, librarians were reading papers such as "Library Applications of CD-ROM"; "Loading Local Machine-Readable Data Files: Issues, Problems, and Answers"; and my "Public-Access Computer Systems: The Next Generation of Library Automation Systems."

    I was particularly interested in the emergence of public-access computer systems because the University of Houston, where I worked as the library's Assistant Director for Systems, had a President who envisioned a bold new age of digital information access. One of my first tasks when I a took the job in 1987 was to flesh-out, in a couple of weeks, the details of this vision for a very substantial grant proposal. By the summer of 1989, I had spent a considerable amount of time reviewing the literature on "electronic publishing" and grappling with how to make the potential real. The library's visionary director, Robin N. Downes, was very supportive of my starting PACS-L (and of my subsequent digital publishing efforts at UH).

    My expectations at ALA were modest; however, the timing was right and PACS-L was one of the first lists to focus on a broad topic rather than a single library automation system. Moreover, PACS-L soon morphed into a list that dealt with the nascent Internet and its implications for libraries and electronic publishing. Consequently, it grew rapidly, and, within a year, had over 1,400 subscribers (at its peak, it had over 10,000 subscribers).

    In this uber-interactive age, it is difficult to convey the early excitement that the development of this new digital community held, especially as it became more international. In short order, I began to consider the possibility of launching an e-journal, and I floated the idea on PACS-L.

    Although the technological infrastructure of the time was primitive at best, on August 16, 1989, I announced the The Public-Access Computer Systems Review, an e-journal whose articles would be distributed as ASCII text files using a LISTSERV server. Here's an excerpt from the announcement:

    The Public-Access Computer Systems Review will contain short articles (1 to 7 single-spaced pages), columns, and reviews. PACS Review will cover all computer systems that libraries make available to their patrons, including CAI and ICAI programs, CD-ROM databases, expert systems, hypermedia systems, information delivery systems, local databases, online catalogs, and remote end-user search systems. All types of short communications dealing with these subjects are welcome. Articles that present innovative projects in libraries, even those at an early stage of their development, are especially welcome. Proposals for regular (or irregular) columns will be considered on an ongoing basis. There will be a section for reviews of books, journal articles, reports, and software.

    A call for papers was issued in October, and the first issue was announced in January 1990. The journal became peer-reviewed in November 1991.

    Starting with its first issue, The Public-Access Computer Systems Review was freely available, allowed noncommercial use, and allowed authors to retain their copyrights. There was no established theoretical or legal context for doing so. The concept of "open access" wouldn't be articulated until the Budapest Open Access Initiative declaration in February 2002, and the Creative Commons wouldn't release its first license until December 2002.

    Needless to say, the journal was product of many hands, including its hardworking editorial staff, its very engaged editorial board, its risk-taking authors, and its columnists.

    From 1994 through 2005 (the only years that data is available), The Public-Access Computer Systems Review had over 3.5 million file requests.

    In the early 1990s, I also cofounded and coedited Public-Access Computer Systems News, which published short news items, and founded and moderated the PACS-P list, which announced new e-serials issues for publications such as Current Cites.

    The Public-Access Computer Systems Review and Public-Access Computer Systems News are preserved in the Internet Archive. The University of Houston has a partial archive of the The Public-Access Computer Systems Review (only ASCII versions of articles, not the HTML website or HTML versions of articles published from 1995 onwards) and a complete archive of Public-Access Computer Systems News. After the University of Houston deleted the PACS-L archive in 2013, it is no longer publicly available.

    For more details about PACS-L and The Public-Access Computer Systems Review, see:

    Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography

    The Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography evolved out of three bibliographies about "electronic publishing on networks" that I published in The Public-Access Computer Systems Review. I was motivated to write them because it was difficult to track this emerging trend using conventional indexes, and I thought that making this information more accessible would foster the further development of digital publishing.

    The final bibliography in this series, "Network-Based Electronic Publishing of Scholarly Works: A Selective Bibliography," was the result of an experimental publishing strategy that I tried in the journal: the option for authors to update their articles. This article was updated 26 times between March 1995 and October 1996.

    By its final version, the bibliography had outgrown the article format, and I transformed it into an electronic book: the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography. Since the literature never stopped changing, I decided that the book wouldn't either: it would be updated periodically. And so it was: 80 times from October 1996 through October 2011. Always freely available, I put it under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License in July 2004.

    Over the course of its evolution, it was distributed as PDF files, printed books, a website, and Word files. By the time the last print version was published in early 2011, it was over 460 pages long. Along the way, a directory of related resources ("Scholarly Electronic Publishing Resources, which was published from 2000 though 2009) and a weblog that listed new works (the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Weblog, which was published from 2001 through 2013) were added to the bibliography.

    The Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography is archived at Digital Scholarship and the Internet Archive. The University of Houston Libraries no longer maintains an archive of the e-book.

    From October 1996 through December 2005, the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography had over 5.5 million file requests.

    For more information about the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography, see:

    Digital Scholarship

    By 2005, I felt that the technological infrastructure had evolved to the point where it was feasible for a single individual to perform all the functions of a digital publisher, and I established my own open access digital press, Digital Scholarship. As you know, it provides information and commentary about digital copyright, digital curation, digital repositories, open access, scholarly communication, and other digital information issues. Its publications are under versions of the Creative Commons Attribution or Attribution-Noncommercial Licenses. I also established DigitalKoans that year to provide timely coverage of those topics.

    In November 2006, I resigned my position as Assistant Dean for Digital Library Planning and Development at the University of Houston Libraries, and I migrated the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography to Digital Scholarship.

    Until 2009, Digital Scholarship only published digital works. In May of that year, I published the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography: 2008 Annual Edition as a low-cost paperback with an open access digital version.

    To date, Digital Scholarship has published the following works:

    Not unexpectedly, the most popular books, aside from the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography, have been those about open access:

    • Open Access Bibliography: Liberating Scholarly Literature with E-Prints and Open Access Journals: 0ver 627,000 file requests.
    • Transforming Scholarly Publishing through Open Access: A Bibliography: Over 637,000 file requests.

    During the time it was published by Digital Scholarship, all digital versions of the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography had over 7.1 million file requests, bringing the total number of file requests to over 12.6 million.

    From April 2005 through May 2014, Digital Scholarship had over 13.7 million visitors from 230 counties and over 66.8 million file requests.

    By analyzing Digital Scholarship log data with Weblog Expert, it is possible to separate out spider requests, to break out page views (a page view would be for a Epub, HTM, HTML, PDF, text, or Word file), to determine the number of unique IPs, and to gauge bandwidth use.

    Here's the breakdown for the same period:

    • Total file requests: Over 66.8 million
    • Spider file requests: Over 26.2 million (about 39% of file requests)
    • Total page views: Over 47.7 million (about 71% of file requests)
    • Total unique IPs: 1.4 million
    • Total bandwidth: Over 1,700 GB

    Conclusion

    In the age of Google, bibliographies may seem antiquated. Digital Scholarship's use data argues otherwise. Certainly, the scholarly information that users are seeking is typically on search engines, but extracting it can be a time-consuming and vexing process. For example, in the early days of the open access movement, Google search results for this topic were replete with papers about surgical procedures, restricted access to beaches, and other false drops.

    My publishing efforts have been driven by advocacy. I write to foster the development of causes that I care about. I hope that my contributions have had a positive impact on them.

    As to the future of Digital Scholarship, I haven't taken a lengthy publishing vacation in 25 years, so it may be time for a sabbatical. I've become increasingly involved in creating digital art, and that taking up more of my time. We'll see.

    Preservation-wise, I've put the major works in the Internet Archive, but, as an individual unaffiliated with a university, can't do much beyond that. As you would imagine, I have extensive digital work files and publication use data dating from the dawn of open access, but I'm not sure how to archive them.

    So, onward, and, hopefully, upward. Thanks for your interest and support over the last quarter-century.

    And a special thanks to the The Public-Access Computer Systems Review editorial staff, editorial board, and columnists:

    Editor-in-Chiefs

    • Pat Ensor (1997-2000)
    • Thomas C. Wilson (1997-2000)

    Editors:

    • Leslie Dillon, Associate Editor (1990) and Associate Editor, Columns (1991-1997)
    • Elizabeth A. Dupuis, Associate Editor, Columns (1997-2000)
    • John E. Fadell, Copy Editor (1998-2000)
    • Andrea Bean Hough, Associate Editor, Communications (1997-2000)
    • Mike Ridley, Associate Editor (1989-1990) and Associate Editor, Reviews (1991)
    • Dana Rooks, Associate Editor, Communications (1991-1997)
    • Robert Spragg, Associate Editor, Technical Support (1996-2000)
    • Roy Tennant, Associate Editor, Reviews (1992-1993)
    • Ann Thornton, Associate Editor, Production (1995-2000)

    Editorial Board:

    • Ralph Alberico (1992-2000)
    • George H. Brett II (1992-2000)
    • Priscilla Caplan (1994-2000)
    • Steve Cisler (1992-2000)
    • Walt Crawford (1989-2000)
    • Lorcan Dempsey (1992-2000)
    • Pat Ensor (1994-1996)
    • Nancy Evans (1989-2000)
    • Stephen Harter (1997-2000)
    • Charles Hildreth (1992-2000)
    • Ronald Larsen (1992-2000)
    • Clifford Lynch (1992-2000)
    • David R. McDonald (1989-2000)
    • R. Bruce Miller (1989-2000)
    • Ann Okerson (1997-2000)
    • Paul Evan Peters (1989-1996)
    • Mike Ridley (1992-2000)
    • Peggy Seiden (1995-2000)
    • Peter Stone (1989-2000)
    • John E. Ulmschneider (1992-2000)

    Columnists

    • Priscilla Caplan (1992-1998)
    • Walt Crawford (1989-1995)
    • Martin Halbert (1990-1993)

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      The Evolving Scholarly Record

      Posted in Reports and White Papers, Scholarly Communication on June 6th, 2014

      OCLC Research has released The Evolving Scholarly Record.

      Here's an excerpt from the announcement:

      Here's an excerpt:

      Key highlights:

      • A confluence of trends is accelerating changes to the scholarly record's content and stakeholder roles.
      • Scholarly outcomes are contextualized by materials generated in the process and aftermath of scholarly inquiry.
      • The research process generates materials covering methods employed, evidence used, and formative discussion.
      • The research aftermath generates materials covering discussion, revision, and reuse of scholarly outcomes.
      • The scholarly record is evolving to have greater emphasis on collecting and curating context of scholarly inquiry.
      • The scholarly record's stakeholder ecosystem encompasses four key roles: create, fix, collect, and use.
      • The stakeholder ecosystem supports thinking about how roles are reconfigured as the scholarly record evolves.

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        "The Number of Scholarly Documents on the Public Web"

        Posted in Google and Other Search Engines, Publishing, Scholarly Communication on May 12th, 2014

        Madian Khabsa and C. Lee Giles mail have published "The Number of Scholarly Documents on the Public Web" in PLOS ONE.

        Here's an excerpt:

        The number of scholarly documents available on the web is estimated using capture/recapture methods by studying the coverage of two major academic search engines: Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search. Our estimates show that at least 114 million English-language scholarly documents are accessible on the web, of which Google Scholar has nearly 100 million. Of these, we estimate that at least 27 million (24%) are freely available since they do not require a subscription or payment of any kind. In addition, at a finer scale, we also estimate the number of scholarly documents on the web for fifteen fields: Agricultural Science, Arts and Humanities, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics and Business, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geosciences, Material Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Physics, Social Sciences, and Multidisciplinary, as defined by Microsoft Academic Search. In addition, we show that among these fields the percentage of documents defined as freely available varies significantly, i.e., from 12 to 50%.

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          Richard W. Clement Named Dean of University of New Mexico’s College of University Libraries & Learning Sciences

          Posted in Scholarly Communication on May 5th, 2014

          The University of New Mexico has named Richard W. Clement as the Dean of the College of University Libraries & Learning Science.

          Here's an excerpt:

          Clement has served as dean at Utah State University since 2008. At USU he transformed library services to provide digital content to six campuses and numerous centers across the state. At the same time, he has insured the preservation of the unique and rare materials that constitute the collective cultural heritage. Clement has devoted his energies to balancing the digital transformation that is changing libraries and universities with the traditional values of preserving the diverse cultural heritage for all citizens and all time. Before coming to Utah in 2008, Clement was head of the department of special collections at the University of Kansas, where he also taught a course in the History of the Book as a courtesy professor of English.

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            Supporting the Changing Research Practices of Art Historians

            Posted in Reports and White Papers, Research Libraries, Scholarly Communication on May 1st, 2014

            Ithaka S+R has released Supporting the Changing Research Practices of Art Historians.

            Here's an excerpt:

            Having completed studies of historians and chemists, we turn in this report to art historians. This is a rich and diverse field of study, and the necessary support services must come from libraries, archives, museums, and technology providers. Digital technology has facilitated access to vast collections of resources that simply were not available before, and yet, the primacy of the actual art object has not diminished at all.

            It would be unwise to draw conclusions from only three disciplines, but there are some interesting similarities among the three groups of scholars we have studied thus far. Scholars in the three fields have similar needs for assistance in managing and organizing non-institutional (i.e. personal or lab group) digital and digitized collections of primary source materials (digitized archival materials for historians, datasets for chemists, and image files for art historians). Meeting these needs will challenge support organizations to think differently about the services they provide and how they provide them.

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              "Internet Publicity of Data Problems in the Bioscience Literature Correlates with Enhanced Corrective Action"

              Posted in Publishing, Scholarly Communication, Scholarly Journals, Social Media/Web 2.0 on April 7th, 2014

              Paul S. Brookes has published "Internet Publicity of Data Problems in the Bioscience Literature Correlates with Enhanced Corrective Action" in PeerJ.

              Here's an excerpt:

              Several online forums exist to facilitate open and/or anonymous discussion of the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Data integrity is a common discussion topic, and it is widely assumed that publicity surrounding such matters will accelerate correction of the scientific record. This study aimed to test this assumption by examining a collection of 497 papers for which data integrity had been questioned either in public or in private. As such, the papers were divided into two sub-sets: a public set of 274 papers discussed online, and the remainder a private set of 223 papers not publicized. The sources of alleged data problems, as well as criteria for defining problem data, and communication of problems to journals and appropriate institutions, were similar between the sets. The number of laboratory groups represented in each set was also similar (75 in public, 62 in private), as was the number of problem papers per laboratory group (3.65 in public, 3.54 in private). Over a study period of 18 months, public papers were retracted 6.5-fold more, and corrected 7.7-fold more, than those in the private set. Parsing the results by laboratory group, 28 laboratory groups in the public set had papers which received corrective action, versus 6 laboratory groups in the private set. For those laboratory groups in the public set with corrected/retracted papers, the fraction of their papers acted on was 62% of those initially flagged, whereas in the private set this fraction was 27%. Such clustering of actions suggests a pattern in which correction/retraction of one paper from a group correlates with more corrections/retractions from the same group, with this pattern being stronger in the public set. It is therefore concluded that online discussion enhances levels of corrective action in the scientific literature. Nevertheless, anecdotal discussion reveals substantial room for improvement in handling of such matters.

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                "Developing Digital Scholarship Services on a Shoestring: Facilities, Events, Tools, and Projects"

                Posted in Research Libraries, Scholarly Communication on April 3rd, 2014

                Heather McCullough has published "Developing Digital Scholarship Services on a Shoestring: Facilities, Events, Tools, and Projects" in College & Research Libraries News.

                Here's an excerpt:

                Libraries and academic technology divisions are increasingly developing and offering digital scholarship services. Yet, the term digital scholarship itself is quite fluid and seems to offer many interpretations depending on a particular university's culture, institutional organization, and environment. This article will outline how one university addressed a need for digital scholarship services at its campus.

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                  Transforming Peer Review Bibliography

                  Posted in Bibliographies, Digital Scholarship Publications, Publishing, Scholarly Communication, Scholarly Journals on January 13th, 2014

                  Digital Scholarship has released the Transforming Peer Review Bibliography, which includes selected English-language articles that are useful in understanding significant transformations to the peer review process.

                  It is concerned with major changes to peer review, such as open peer review (excluding just revealing the identity of traditional peer reviewers) and post-publication review.

                  Most sources have been published from January 2010 through December 2012; however, a limited number of earlier key sources are also included. The bibliography includes links to freely available versions of included works. If such versions are unavailable, italicized links to the publishers' descriptions are provided.

                  It is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

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                    Scholarly Electronic Publishing Weblog (December 13, 2013)

                    Posted in Bibliographies, Digital Scholarship Publications, Scholarly Communication on December 13th, 2013

                    The latest bimonthly update of the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Weblog is now available. It provides information about selected new works related to scholarly electronic publishing, such as books, e-prints, journal articles, technical reports, and white papers.

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                      Software Developer at University of Maryland Libraries

                      Posted in Scholarly Communication on December 11th, 2013

                      The University of Maryland Libraries are recruiting a Software Developer.

                      Here's an excerpt from the ad:

                      The Software Developer provides broad programming support to the University of Maryland Libraries for the development and delivery of Java-based software applications. The applications support development and management of web pages and large-scale digital collections. They include tools for cataloging, search, and discovery of digital collections, tools for acquisition of digital collections, access to and retrieval of digital objects in the collections, and tools for preservation and maintenance of digital collections over the long term.

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                        Web Services Librarian at Boston College Libraries

                        Posted in Scholarly Communication on December 4th, 2013

                        Boston College Libraries are recruiting a Web Services Librarian.

                        Here's an excerpt from the ad:

                        As a member of the Library Systems Department, the Web Services Librarian will collaborate with Public Services managers and staff to ensure the smooth, reliable operation and usability of the libraries' key public-facing web content systems. He/she administers library web content management systems (e.g. LibGuides CMS and Drupal), working closely with web content owners and authors to make certain that library web pages are optimized to conform to indexing, design and stylistic standards. He/she conducts individual consultations, creates documentation, tutorials and other training materials to support staff users of Drupal, LibGuides CMS and other public-facing library web applications as required. He/She maintains CMS asset/shared content databases and ensures their continued accuracy and usability.

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