Electronic (Online) Publishing in Action . . . The Public- Access Computer Systems Review and Other Electronic Serials

Charles W. Bailey, Jr.

Preprint: 8/12/1990


For many years, librarians have been reading about the potentials of electronic serials. An increasing number of full-text journals are available on database vendor systems, but these files are typically derived from print products. However, outside the commercial sector, a few pioneers on BITNET, an international computer network, have been quietly exploring publishing electronic digests, journals, magazines, and newsletters that have no print counterparts. These electronic serials are distributed to subscribers via e-mail messages or file transfers.

This activity takes place in the larger context of electronic communication on BITNET. The major types of communication on BITNET are personal e-mail and computer conferences. There are thousands of computer conferences on BITNET, representing an increasing vital and important channel of scholarly communication. Given the diverse ways that communication is structured in these conferences, it is not always easy to tell where informal conference activity ends and formal electronic publication begins. This article focuses on electronic serials that bear some resemblance to their more traditional print counterparts; however, it should be emphasized that our conception of "serials" may need to be reconsidered in the network context.

The University of Houston Libraries has established a computer conference, an electronic journal, and an electronic newsletter on BITNET to examine issues related to public-access computer systems in libraries.

This article discusses this conference and its related electronic serials, briefly looks at other BITNET conferences and electronic serials, and discusses questions associated with the future of electronic serials.

The Public-Access Computer Systems Forum

In June 1989, the University Libraries of the University of Houston established the Public-Access Computer Systems Forum, a computer conference on BITNET. The conference, which is commonly known as PACS-L, was set up to allow librarians to discuss issues related to computer systems in libraries that are used by patrons, such as CD-ROM databases, computer-assisted instruction programs, expert systems, hypertext programs, locally mounted databases, and online catalogs. It was also hoped that the existence of a computer conference with a fairly broad scope would encourage librarians, especially public-services librarians, to more fully explore the potentials of electronic communication. BITNET contained a wealth of information; however, it seemed that, in spite of the existence of several specialized library computer conferences like NOTIS-L, many librarians who had access to the network were not fully utilizing it. If it was successful, PACS-L might encourage librarians to develop more sophisticated network skills, explore other network conferences and electronic resources, and establish their own conferences.

From its inception, PACS-L grew rapidly, and, in addition to librarians, it attracted computer specialists, faculty members, library school students, and other users. By August 1990, the conference had over 1,600 users in 26 countries. In slightly over one year, PACS-L users had sent close to 2,000 messages via the conference. PACS-L had achieved its primary goal—disseminating information about public-access computer systems--and it seemed to have helped participating librarians to deepen their knowledge about BITNET and other networks.

How PACS-L Works

Users who have an e-mail account on a computer that is connected to BITNET or to another network that is linked to BITNET can join PACS-L by sending the following message to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1:

SUBSCRIBE PACS-L First Name Last Name.

Like most computer conferences on BITNET, PACS-L is a volunteer effort. PACS-L users pay no fees to the University of Houston Libraries for using the conference or its services. (Depending on local practice, users may pay their computer centers for e-mail services.) The Information Technology Division of the University of Houston provides computer services for PACS- L, and the University Libraries provide conference management support. PACS-L users invest the time and effort to do the hard work—writing the messages that make the conference worthwhile.

Discussions of public-access computing issues on PACS-L are often informal, but they are usually informative and timely. Debate on controversial issues can be quite lively. Messages range in length from several lines to several hundred lines. Five to ten messages are sent out each day. Long messages are divided up into a sequence of shorter messages. As moderator of the conference, I review all submitted messages and distribute appropriate ones to conference participants. PACS-L messages are archived, and the message database can be searched in batch mode using Boolean and other sophisticated searching techniques.

A more detailed discussion of PACS-L can be found in my article "The Public-Access Computer Systems Forum: A Computer Conference on BITNET." 1

Genesis of The Public-Access Computer Systems Review

After running PACS-L for a month or so, I began thinking about the possibility of publishing an electronic journal. Many thoughtful papers on the potentials of electronic journals had been published. There had been several notable experiments with electronic journals.2 However, excluding databases that were derived from print journals, there appeared to be little actual electronic journal publishing activity. Many BITNET electronic serials were more like newsletters or other types of magazines than scholarly journals. Given the current "serials crisis," electronic journals offered one potential solution to this crisis that needed to be explored. While electronic journals would not revolutionize scholarly3 publishing any time soon, it seemed that now was the time to explore whether electronic journals held any promise as an alternative means of scholarly publication.

PACS-L provided both a tool to distribute an electronic journal, the Revised LISTSERV software used to support PACS-L, and a potential audience for such a journal. The Revised LISTSERV software, commonly called the list server, certainly had its limitations, but it seemed to have enough power to explore some basic issues in electronic journal publication. Moreover, it was widely in use, and if the proposed journal was successful, others could easily follow the precedent set by the journal. If electronic journals were to find a place in scholarly research, libraries would need to accept, collect, and preserve them. It seemed that a good way to interest librarians in electronic journals was to produce one dealing with library issues. It was a natural extension of PACS-L to create an electronic journal that focused on public-access computer systems, and the potential interplay between a computer conference and an electronic journal on this topic offered some interesting possibilities. Thus, the idea of establishing The Public-Access Computer Systems Review was born.

Robin Downes, Director of the University Libraries, was supportive of the idea of setting up an electronic journal. With his encouragement, an editorial board was formed over the next few months to help shape the journal. Board members and their current affiliation are: Walt Crawford, Research Libraries Group; Nancy Evans, Library and Information Technology Association; David McDonald, Tufts University; R. Bruce Miller, University of California, San Diego; Paul Evan Peters, Coalition for Networked Information; and Peter Stone, University of Sussex.

After evaluating how to structure the production aspect of the journal, I decided to act as Editor-In-Chief and appoint an Associate Editor to help with the workload. Mike Ridley, McMaster University, who had a strong interest in the journal, accepted this post.

All members of the Editorial Board and the editorial staff are unpaid volunteers.

Major Issues Related to Developing the Electronic Journal

There were many questions that needed to be answered about the nature and structure of the journal. To facilitate communication between the editors and the Editorial Board, a private BITNET computer conference was established.

One of the major issues dealt with imitating the conventions of print journals (e.g., separate issues, enumeration, and page numbers). If print conventions were not used, how would authors cite articles in the journal? How would libraries integrate them into their serials work flow? Some members of the editorial group felt that mimicking print journal conventions was unnecessary and unduly restrictive, others believed that doing so would increase the acceptance of the journal and permit it to enter the stream of scholarly discourse more easily.

Another key issue was the length and complexity of articles to be included in the journal. This issue was linked to questions about how users would read the journal's articles (on the screen vs. printouts). We doubted that users would want to read lengthy articles online; however, it would be possible for many users to either print articles on a mainframe printer or download articles and print them on their PC. Which would be better: short, useful articles or longer, more substantive articles?

Inevitably, the question of whether it would be a refereed journal arose. A refereed journal seemed ideal, but it had several problems. The pool of potential authors might be small for such an avant-garde form of publication. Would authors invest the level of effort required to produce an article for a refereed electronic journal? The referee process would also slow down journal production and increase the workload of the volunteer editors.

Distribution format was another consideration. Should the journal be sent out as a long e-mail message on PACS-L? Should the journal be issued in sections (e.g., news, short communications, and research)? Should individual articles be stored as files on the list server and a table of contents message be sent out on PACS-L to notify users that an issue was ready and tell them how to retrieve article files of interest? If the journal wasn't issued as a whole, how would each section or article be identified as belonging to an issue? Given the e-mail account limitations of some PACS-L users, this decision would also help determine acceptable article length.

Publication schedule was also an issue. Should an issue's articles be "published" at one time or should they be issued individually as they were edited? Technically, there was no reason to publish the articles at one time—this was a print publication convention. If the journal were issued as a whole, should it come out on a regular basis and, if so, how frequently?

The mutability of information in the journal was considered. Would there be one, fixed "official" version of an article? By contrast, would PACS-L users be allowed to react to articles and have their comments appended to the article, with the author being given the chance to revise the work after a set period of time to account for these comments? A final issue was whether to produce a solely electronic journal or to complement the electronic journal with a print counterpart. We recognized that all interested readers did not have appropriate network access to retrieve the journal; however, having a parallel print journal seemed to defeat a key purpose of the journal: to test the viability of electronic publication. Parallel print publication also introduced numerous additional complexities in producing the journal.

Decisions About Journal Format

All of the thought-provoking and valuable comments of the editorial group were considered in making final decisions about the journal.

It was decided to publish a strictly electronic publication, which potentially freed the journal of many of the constraints of print. However, if the journal was too unrecognizable, user acceptance might be a potential problem. It seemed that the best immediate goal would be to establish and legitimize a fairly simple electronic library journal, rather than to explore the many enticing possibilities that the electronic format offered.

Using long-established print journal conventions would make serial librarians' job easier if their libraries added the journal to their collections, provide readers with a familiar format as they adopted to the unique features of electronic environment, increase acceptance of the journal, and simplify citation of the journal's articles. Therefore, the journal would have issues that were published on a regular basis (three times a year), identified by volume and number, paginated, and archived on the list server without change.

Since establishing an electronic journal was bound to be a time-consuming and inherently difficult task, it was decided to forego the complexities of the referee process and have the Editor-in-Chief judge the caliber of articles; however, the possibility of establishing a refereed "Research" section at a future time was left open. Initially, the journal would have a "Communications" section for articles and a "Departments" section for columns, reviews, and other short material.

Implementing the Journal

The process of getting the journal started was fairly straightforward. Calls for papers were issued on PACS-L and other library-related conferences. A number of potential authors were contacted directly, asking them to contribute papers.

While the recruitment of authors required persistence, a number of seven potential authors were receptive to the idea of submitting unpaid articles to an electronic journal for the benefit of their professional colleagues on PACS-L. Although some authors failed to deliver their papers, this seemed like a fairly predictable and routine editorial problem.

The papers were sent to the Editor-in-Chief via e-mail or file transfer, and, in turn, were forwarded to the Associate Editor for comment. After selecting the papers for the issue, the process of editing these papers began. Initially, it was attempted to edit them using a line editor in the VM/CMS operating system of the mainframe computer that PACS-L runs on. Given the primitive capabilities of this line editor, this proved to be unsatisfactory, and the articles were downloaded to a PC using Kermit. The files were then imported into WordPerfect as text files. Since the original format of the documents was often lost in this process, this presumably simple process proved to be rather vexing. After some experimentation, the amount of file clean up that was needed before copy editing could take place was minimized. The actual process of editing was no different than that associated with a print journal—editing is hard work in any format. After copy editing an article, a file header that identified the article in a standard bibliographic citation format, textual page breaks (i.e., "+ Page 1 +") based on a 10-point Courier font, and a copyright statement were added to the article. The file was then exported from WordPerfect as a text file, uploaded to the mainframe, and sent to its author via e-mail for comment. Once comments were received, the WordPerfect version of the file was revised and the final version of the article was uploaded to the mainframe.

Once all the final article files were assembled in the PACS-L mainframe account, they were sent to the computer account of a staff member in the University of Houston's Information Technology Division, who added the files to the list server's PACS-L file list. The files could now be accessed by PACS-L users. The next step was to send the annotated table of contents file out on PACS-L as a message so that users knew the first issue was published and understood how to retrieve article files of interest.

The first issue, which was 59 single-spaced pages in length, was published in January 1990, approximately five months after the first call for papers was issued. It contained articles about text management software, a computer-assisted instruction package developed by a music library, a CD- ROM network in a medical library, and library system technologies to assist patrons with physical disabilities. It also had a column about browsing in OPACs and two book reviews.

The production process for the second issue was similar to that of the first, with the exception that the Associate Editor was able to do a significant amount of editing and author liaison work for this issue. (The complexities involved in establishing work procedures and operational conventions for a new type of journal prevented this level of participation in the first issue.) The second issue, which was 93 single-spaced pages in length, was published in June 1990. It contained articles about CD-ROM network license agreements, staffing issues and public-access computer systems, a CD-ROM LAN in an academic library, and the status of Z39.50 implementation. It also had a column on help functions in library systems, another column on helpful books and articles dealing with Internet, and a software review of a bibliography management package.

The 18 contributors to the first two issues included library professionals working in a diversity of settings—academic libraries, bibliographic utilities, corporations, and medical libraries—as well as a history professor.

How the Journal Works

PACS-L users have an automatic, free subscription to The Public-Access Computer Systems Review. The journal is copyrighted; however, copying is permitted for noncommercial use by computerized conferences, individual scholars, and libraries. Libraries can add the journal to their collections at no cost in either electronic or printed form. The journal has an ISSN number (1048-6542), and it is cataloged on OCLC (OCLC number 20987125) and RLIN. (The National Serials Data Program took the initiative and assigned an ISSN number when they became aware of the journal.) As of August 1990, two libraries are listed on OCLC as holding the journal: Dartmouth College Library and the University of Houston Libraries. Columbia University Libraries, Dartmouth College Library, and the Library of Congress are listed on RLIN. The UH Libraries honors requests for article interlibrary loans just as it does for any print journal in its collection. To my knowledge, the journal is not included in any library index. Since articles can be obtained at any time from the list server, there is no need for the University of Houston Libraries to deal with claims for the journal.

After a PACS-L user receives the table of contents message for an issue, the user can decide which articles to retrieve based on the short article descriptions in that message. The user then requests the desired articles by sending a message to the University of Houston list server (LISTSERV@UHUPVM1) that contains the appropriate GET commands indicated in the table of contents message (e.g., GET WILSON PRV1N2 to receive the article by Tom Wilson on CD-ROM network license agreements published in the second issue). The user receives an e-mail message from the list server describing the processing of the request. Each article file is sent to the user's account via a file transfer. Since the file is not sent via e-mail, the user must know the appropriate file handling commands used by his or her mainframe or minicomputer to manipulate the article file (e.g., receive, read, print, or download the file).

If a user has missed or discarded the table of contents message for an issue, the user can send an e-mail message to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 that contains the INDEX PACS-L command to receive, via a file transfer, a list of all available PACS-L files, including the article files for the journal. The table of contents message for each issue has been stored on the list server as a file. The table of contents file for the first issue is called CONTENTS PRV1N1, and the file for the second issue is CONTENTS PRV1N2. To retrieve a file, the user sends a message with a GET File Name command to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 (e.g., GET CONTENTS PRV1N2).

Public-Access Computer Systems News

A month or so after the publication of the first issue of The Public-Access Computer Systems Review, I began to explore with Dana Rooks, Assistant Director for Administration at the University of Houston Libraries, the idea of publishing an electronic newsletter based on vendor press releases and other timely information. Although these edited press releases could have simply been sent out on PACS-L as messages, it was felt that a more formal means of communication was desirable to set this kind of vendor-oriented information apart from the normal conference activity. Ms. Rooks agreed to serve as co-editor of the newsletter.

Since the information was timely, it was decided that an irregular publication schedule was best for the short issues the editors envisioned. This way an issue could be quickly created and published once several interesting press releases were received. Each issue would be sent out as a message on the PACS-L conference. The newsletter would follow the same print-oriented conventions as the journal (e.g., issue enumeration and pagination) and have the same copyright provisions. Since issues would be sent out as conference messages, they would be automatically archived in the PACS-L message database.

The first issue of the Public-Access Computer Systems News was published in March 1990. As of August 1990, seven issues have been published. The newsletter has an ISSN number (1050-6004) and is cataloged on OCLC ( OCLC number 21547573). To make back issue retrieval easier, the newsletter issue files will be added to the PACS-L list server in the near future.

Reflections on Electronic Serials

The future of electronic publication is a very complex issue. I have treated it in some depth in "Integrated Public-Access Computer Systems: The Heart of the Electronic University." 3 In brief, I do not foresee traditional print-based publishing being completely replaced by electronic publishing in the next 10-15 years. I do feel that electronic publishing will become increasingly important. A few key issues related to electronic serials will be discussed here.

Current tools for electronic publishing over networks like BITNET are fairly primitive. Electronic serials that employ ASCII text files reduce data transmission requirements and ensure that all potential users can utilize retrieved files. Yet, this limited method of publication prevents the use of different fonts, non-ASCII characters (e.g., foreign character sets, mathematical symbols, and scientific notation), complex tables, illustrations, and color. Postscript, SGML, TeX and similar techniques offer some solutions to this problem, but files that are encoded in this way may not be useful to many users who lack appropriate hardware or software to utilize these files.

There are at least seven infrastructure improvements that must be made before network-based electronic serials can fully compete with print serials. First, a standardized, non-proprietary method for replicating the information reproduction capabilities of print technology must be incorporated into low-cost, ubiquitous microcomputer software. Second, microcomputer hardware must evolve so that high-quality information reproduction, on both the screen and the printer, can be done at low cost. Third, users must have more powerful e-mail capabilities that can easily handle large amounts of encoded information and permit the user to manipulate this information in a convenient way. Fourth, networks themselves must have adequate speed and bandwidth to accommodate greater information transmission demands. Fifth, all interested users, both in the U.S. and abroad, must have access to that network environment at a reasonable cost to their institutions or themselves. Sixth, up-to-date and comprehensive information about electronic serials must be readily available to network users. Finally, permanent archives of electronic serials must be maintained by libraries or other agencies.

As daunting as this list appears, there are many other fiscal, legal, regulatory, social, and technical issues that must be resolved as well. I would also point out that replicating the capabilities of print technology is really only an interim goal. Eclipsing those capabilities with computerized multimedia documents is the likely long-term goal.4

In spite of the limitations of current technological tools, the electronic serials that currently exist on BITNET demonstrate that something can be done today to partially address the formal communication needs of the scholarly community. It is possible to produce useful journals, magazines, and newsletters and to distribute those publications without charging users. With institutional subsidies for computing costs, the primary investment that is required to produce an electronic serial is the time of editorial staff, authors, and, if required, referees. This time may be volunteered by interested parties. Since the publisher is freed from the printing and physical distribution process, start-up of a new serial is relatively quick, and on-going operations are simplified. A truly noncommercial publishing venture also eliminates the bookkeeping and support operations associated with paid subscriptions.


Given the capabilities of the list server software, the technological infrastructure exists for professional societies, individual scholars, and librarians to establish and explore the potentials of electronic serials on BITNET. Long-term planning for a sophisticated, national electronic scholarly publication system is desirable; however, potential electronic publishers with access to the list server software do not need to wait for such a system to emerge before taking action. Indeed, the individual efforts of today's electronic publishers may help lay the groundwork for such a system by revealing the benefits and pitfalls of such efforts.

As librarians, we must decide what role we are to play in the network information environment. Will we take an active role as trailblazer and trail guide, assisting users in identifying and accessing remote electronic serials and other network resources? Will we collect, provide access to, and preserve electronic serials, conferences, and other information? Will we help shape the future of electronic serials by becoming electronic publishers ourselves?

As is often the case, new technological capabilities offer many challenges, but they also offer significant opportunities. By facing the challenges associated with electronic serials, we have the opportunity to extend the scope of our services and help "invent the future" of scholarly communication



1. Charles W. Bailey, Jr., "The Public-Access Computer Systems Forum: A Computer Conference on BITNET," Library Software Review 9 (March- April 1990): 71-74.

2. Anne B. Piternick, "Attempts to Find Alternatives to the Scientific Journal: A Brief Review," The Journal of Academic Librarianship 15 (November 1989): 263-265.

3. Charles W. Bailey, Jr., "Integrated Public-Access Computer Systems: The Heart of the Electronic University," Advances in Library Automation and Networking 3 (1989): 1-33.

4. Charles W. Bailey, Jr., "Intelligent Multimedia Computer Systems: Emerging Information Resources in the Network Environment," Library Hi Tech 8, no. 1 (1990): 29-41.

Communications to the author should be addressed to Charles W. Bailey, Jr., Assistant Director for Systems, University Libraries, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-2091.



Conferences and Electronic Serials on BITNET

By Charles W. Bailey, Jr.


Typically, computer conferences on BITNET are supported by the Revised LISTSERV software. The Revised LISTSERV software is referred to as the "list server," and conferences that are supported by this software are called "lists."

To identify what list servers exist on BITNET, send an e-mail message to LISTSERV@BITNIC that says: GET BITNET SERVERS. The file BITNET SERVERS will be sent to your account. If you do not understand file transfers, ask your computer center for help. Look for the section of the file that says "List servers."

To obtain a complete and up-to-date list of computer conferences on BITNET, send an e-mail message to the nearest list server that says: LIST GLOBAL. The file LISTSERV LISTS will be sent to your account. Since some lists have selective or closed membership, you will not be able to join all of the lists identified in this file.

To join a list, send an e-mail message to the appropriate list server address (i.e., LISTSERV@Node) that says: SUBSCRIBE List First Name Last Name. For example, Jane Smith wants to join the Public-Access Computer Systems Forum (PACS-L@UHUPVM1). To do so, she would send an e-mail message to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 that says: SUBSCRIBE PACS-L Jane Smith. In this example, UHUPVM1 is the node and PACS-L is the list.

Some lists of interest to librarians are:

BI-L@BINGVMB: Bibliographic Instruction

BRS-L@USCVM: BRS/Search Users

GOVDOC-L@PSUVM: Government Documents

INNOPAC@MAINE: Innovative Interfaces OPAC

LIBPLN-L@QUCDN: Library Planning

MLA-L@IUBVM: Music Library Association


NOTRBCAT@INDYCMS : Rare Book Catalogers

PACS-L@UHUPVM1: Public-Access Computer Systems Forum


To contribute a message to a list, send the e-mail message to the list address. For example, to send a message to the Public-Access Computer Systems Forum, send the e-mail message to PACS-L@UHUPVM1.

It is important to remember that conference messages are sent to the list address (e.g., PACS-L@UHUPVM1), but commands (e.g., SUBSCRIBE) are sent to the list server address (e.g., LISTSERV@UHUPVM1)


Electronic Serials

Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive and up-to-date list of electronic serials on BITNET. The BITNET SERVERS file you obtained earlier contains a list of electronic serials on BITNET. As of August 1990, the latest version of this file is dated February 1990. Look in the section "Electronic magazines."

The following brief descriptions of selected electronic serials will give you an idea of the types of serials that exist on BITNET. These descriptions are based on one or more sample issues of the publication.

Athene contains amateur creative writing. Editor: Jim McCabe (MCCABE@MTUS5). Issue enumeration: volume and number; month of publication. Contents section: yes. Pagination: no. Format: ASCII or PostScript. Circulation: 747 (July 1990). To subscribe, send an e-mail request to the editor.

CCNEWS deals with issues of interest to academic computing newsletter editors. It comes in two separate sections: (1) a newsletter, 17 which contains editorial comments, short information items, and comments from subscribers; and (2) a compilation of abstracts for short article files that have recently been added to the list server. Publisher: EDUCOM. Editor: Wendy Rickard Bollentin (RICKARD@BITNIC). Issue enumeration: volume and number; date of publication. Frequency: biweekly. Contents section: yes. Pagination: no. Format: ASCII. Back issues: stored at LISTSERV@BITNIC. Circulation: 1,370 (June 1990). To subscribe, send the following message to LISTSERV@BITNIC: SUBSCRIBE CCNEWS First Name Last Name.

Health Info-Com Network Newsletter contains news items, short reports, and scholarly articles dealing with medicine. Editor: David Dodell (ATW1H@ASUACAD). Issue enumeration: volume and number; date of issue. Frequency: weekly. Contents section: yes. Pagination: yes. Format: ASCII. To subscribe, send an e-mail request to the editor.

IRLIST Digest contains descriptions of research projects, meeting announcements, calls for papers, dissertation abstracts, and other short information items related to information retrieval research. Editors: Clifford Lynch (CALUR@UCCMVSA), Mary Engle (MEEUR@UCCMVSA), and Nancy Gusack (NCGUR@UCCMVSA). Issue enumeration: volume, number, and issue number. Contents section: yes. Pagination: no. Format: ASCII. To subscribe, send the following e-mail message to LISTSERV@UCCVMA: SUBSCRIBE IR- L First Name Last Name.

Newsletter on Serials Pricing Issues contains editorial comments, news items, conference reports and other short articles, and comments from subscribers about the serials crisis and the cost of serials. Publisher: Publisher/Vendor-Library Relations Committee's Subcommittee on Serials Pricing Issues, Association for Library Collections and Technical Services, American Library Association. Editor: Marcia Tuttle (TUTTLE@UNC). ISSN: 1046-3410. OCLC number: 20386539. Issue enumeration: issue number; date of issue. Contents section: yes. Pagination: no. Format: ASCII. Back issues: request from editor. Other electronic access: ALANET and DataLinx. To subscribe, send the following message to LISTSERV@UNCVX1: SUBSCRIBE PRICES-L First Name Last Name.

The Online Journal of Distance Education and Communication contains editorial comments, short articles (4 screens maximum), meeting announcements, job listings, and other short information items dealing with distance education and communications, telecommunications in education, and electronic cross-cultural communication. Editor: Jason Ohler (JFJBO@ALASKA). Issue enumeration: volume and number; month of publication. Frequency: biweekly. Contents section: yes. Pagination: no. Format: ASCII. To subscribe, send the following message to LISTSERV@UWAVM: SUBSCRIBE DISTED First Name Last Name.

SCUP BITNET News contains short information items, requests for information and assistance, job listings, and other material related to academic planning. Publisher: Society for College and University Planning. Editor: Joanne Cate (BUDLAO@UCCVMA). Issue enumeration: volume and number; date of publication. Contents section: yes. Pagination: no. Format: ASCII. Index available: yes. Back issues: contact the editor. To subscribe, send an e-mail request to the editor.

Recently, there have been two announcements of forthcoming scholarly electronic journals.

The Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue Electronique de Communication has issued a call for papers for a quarterly, bilingual journal dealing with the study of communication theory, research, practice, and policy. James Winter (B13@WINDSOR1), Department of Communication Studies at the University of Windsor, and Claude Martin (MARTIN@UMTLVR), Department of Communication at the University of Montreal, are the editors. The journal has an international editorial board.

Postmodern Culture has also issued a call for papers for a peer-reviewed journal on contemporary literature, theory, and culture that will contain essays (up to 8,000 words), fiction, and poetry. Eyal Amiran, Elaine Orr, and John Unsworth (PMC@NCSUVM) edit this journal, which has an editorial board. A computer conference has been established to permit readers to respond to the journal's articles and exchange other information.

Citation for Published Article

Charles W. Bailey, Jr., "Electronic (Online) Publishing in Action . . . The Public-Access Computer Systems Review and Other Electronic Serials," ONLINE 15 (January 1991): 28-35.

Bailey, Charles W., Jr. "Electronic (Online) Publishing in Action . . . The Public-Access Computer Systems Review and Other Electronic Serials." ONLINE 15 (January 1991): 28-35.