Academic Library as Scholarly Publisher Bibliography
Charles W. Bailey, Jr.
Houston: Digital Scholarship


The Academic Library as Scholarly Publisher Bibliography includes over 125 selected English-language articles, books, and technical reports that are useful in understanding the digital scholarly publishing activities of academic libraries since the late 1980's, especially their open access book and journal publishing activities. The bibliography covers the following subtopics: pioneering academic library publishing projects in the 1980's and 1990's, early digital journals and serials published by librarians (as distinct from libraries), library-based scholarly publishing since the Budapest Open Access Initiative, technical publishing infrastructure, and library and university press mergers/partnerships and other relevant works.

Here is the Library Publishing Coalition's definition of library publishing:

The LPC defines library publishing as the set of activities led by college and university libraries to support the creation, dissemination, and curation of scholarly, creative, and/or educational works.

Generally, library publishing requires a production process, presents original work not previously made available, and applies a level of certification to the content published, whether through peer review or extension of the institutional brand.

Based on core library values, and building on the traditional skills of librarians, it is distinguished from other publishing fields by a preference for Open Access dissemination as well as a willingness to embrace informal and experimental forms of scholarly communication and to challenge the status quo.

Starting in the late 1980's, university libraries were among the first publishers of digital scholarly journals on the Internet. With the approval and support of Robin N. Downes, the Director of the University of Houston Libraries, The Public-Access Computer Systems Review, an open access journal, was launched in August 1989, with the first issue being published in January 1990. In November 1990, the Virginia Tech University Libraries published the first issue of the Journal of the International Academy of Hospitality Research. In the Library Publishing Directory 2018, the Virginia Tech University Libraries is listed as publishing five "Campus-based student-driven journals" and six "Journals produced under contract/MOU for external groups." The Stanford University Libraries established HighWire Press in 1995, publishing The Journal of Biological Chemistry as its first journal. As of March 2015, HighWire Press had published over 2.4 million open access articles out of a total of 7.6 million articles. Again with Downes' approval, the University of Houston Libraries began publishing the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography, an open access book, in October 1996. This digital book was updated 64 times between 1996 and 2006.

Digital journal publishing projects that involved university libraries working in partnership arrangements in the 1990's included Project Euclid (Cornell University Library and Duke University Press), the BioOne Project (the University of Kansas, the Big 12 Plus Libraries Consortium, and other partners), and Project Muse (Johns Hopkins University Press and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library).

Early digital journals and serials published by librarians included the Arachnet Electronic Journal on Virtual Culture, Ariadne, Current Cites, D-LIB Magazine, Information Research, Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, The Katharine Sharp Review, LIBRES (early volumes), MC Journal: The Journal of Academic Media Librarianship, and Public-Access Computer Systems News. (See the Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists, 6th edition for further information on this topic.)

In the 1990's, University libraries also acted as important digital journal publishing testing grounds for major academic publishers in ventures such as the CORE Project, the Red Sage Project, the SuperJournal Project, and the TULIP Project. (See section 3.3 Electronic Serials: Electronic Distribution of Printed Journals of the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography for further information on this topic.)

In the last 16 years, there has been a growing movement by academic and other libraries to directly publish books, journals, and other works. This resurgent activity has been fueled by the open access movement, which is typically viewed as starting with the 2002 Budapest Open Access Initiative. Academic libraries built organizational and technical infrastructure to support this movement, often using open source software that was created in order to advance it. An increasing commitment to the OA movement sparked important cultural changes in libraries, which resulted in the proliferation of institutional repositories, scholarly communication units, and research data support units supported by them.

Open source software from the Public Knowledge Project, such as Open Journal Systems, is frequently used in library-based publishing programs; however, a variety of software tools, are also employed. Promising new open source publishing programs, such as Fulcrum, Hypothesis, Janeway, Manifold, PubPub, PubSweet, Scalar, and Vega, are emerging; but are not well represented in the types of works covered by this bibliography.

University presses are in a period of change and restructuring. Increasingly, they are being put under the administrative control of university libraries. Furthermore, entirely new all-digital open access university presses are being established, often under the direction of or in partnership with university libraries.


The Academic Library as Scholarly Publisher Bibliography primarily covers published articles and books about the digital scholarly publishing activities of academic libraries since the late 1980's, especially their open access publishing activities. Its focus is on the publication of digital scholarly books and journals. Some included works may treat a broader scope of academic library digital publishing activities. Readers interested in detailed coverage of data publication issues may find the author's Research Data Curation Bibliography helpful.

With a few historical exceptions, this bibliography does not include digital media works (such as MP3 files), editorials, e-mail messages, interviews, letters to the editor, presentation slides or transcripts, unpublished e-prints, or weblog postings. Coverage of conference papers and technical reports is very selective. Commercial software and other specialized software used by university presses are not covered by this bibliography.

Most sources have been published from January 2002 through July 2018; however, a limited number of earlier key sources are also included. The bibliography has links to included works. Such links, even to publisher versions and versions in disciplinary archives and institutional repositories, are subject to change. URLs may alter without warning (or automatic forwarding) or they may disappear altogether. Where possible, this bibliography uses Digital Object Identifier System (DOI) URLs.

Abstracts are included in this bibliography if a work is under a Creative Commons Attribution License (BY and national/international variations), a Creative Commons public domain dedication (CC0), or a Creative Commons Public Domain Mark and this is clearly indicated in the work (see the "Note on the Inclusion of Abstracts" below for more details).

When two URLs are present in a reference, the first one is for the work at the publisher's site and the second one is for a self-archived version of the work.


In memory of Paul Evan Peters (1947-1996), founding Executive Director of the Coalition for Networked Information, whose visionary leadership at the dawn of the Internet era fostered the development of scholarly electronic publishing.

Picture of Paul Peters



1.0 Pioneering Academic Library Publishing Projects in the 1980's and 1990's

Alexander, Adrian, and Marilu Goodyear. "The Development of BioOne: Changing the Role of Research Libraries in Scholarly Communication." The Journal of Electronic Publishing 5 (March 2000).

———. "'La Jolla Confidential': The Inside Story of BioOne." The Serials Librarian 40, no. 1/2 (2001): 71-83.

Bailey, Charles W., Jr. "Electronic (Online) Publishing in Action . . . The Public-Access Computer Systems Review and Other Electronic Serials." ONLINE 15 (January 1991): 28-35.

———. "Evolution of an Electronic Book: The Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography." The Journal of Electronic Publishing 7 (December 2001).

Canhos, Vanderlei, Leslie Chan, and Barbara Kirsop. "Bioline Publications: How Its Evolution Has Mirrored the Growth of the Internet." Learned Publishing 14, no. 1 (2001): 41-48.

Case, Mary M., and Nancy R. John. "Publishing Journals@UIC." ARL: A Bimonthly Report, no. 252/253 (2007): 12-15.

Cochenour, Donnice. "Project Muse: A Partnership of Interest." Serials Review 21, no. 3 (1995): 75.

Cuddy, Colleen. "HighWire Press and Its Journey to Become the World's Largest Full-text STM Online Journal Collection." Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries 2, no. 1 (2005): 1-13.

Duranceau, Ellen Finnie. "The Economics of Electronic Publishing." Serials Review 21, no. 1 (1995): 77-90.

Ehling, Terry, and Erich Staib. "The Coefficient Partnership: Project Euclid, Cornell University Library and Duke University Press." Against the Grain 20, no. 6 (2008): Article 9.

Ensor, Pat, and Thomas Wilson. "Public-Access Computer Systems Review: Testing the Promise." The Journal of Electronic Publishing 3, no. 1 (1997).

Joseph, Heather. "BioOne: Building a Sustainable Alternative Publishing Model for Non-profit Publishers." Learned Publishing 16, no. 2 (2003): 134-138.

Joseph, Heather, and Todd A. Carpenter. "BioOne's Business Model Shift: Balancing the Interests of Libraries and Independent Publishers." Serials Review 31, no. 3 (2005): 187-191.

Koltay, Zsuzsa, and H. Thomas Hickerson. "Project Euclid and the Role of Research Libraries in Scholarly Publishing." Journal of Library Administration 35, no. 1-2 (2002): 83-98.

Lewis, Susan. "From Earth to Ether." The Serials Librarian 25, no. 3-4 (1995): 173-180.

Sack, John. "HighWire Press: Ten Years of Publisher-Driven Innovation." Learned Publishing 18, no. 2 (2005): 131-142.

Savage, Lon. "The Journal of the International Academy of Hospitality Research." The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 54-66.

Treloar, Andrew. "Rethinking the Library's Role in Publishing." Learned Publishing 12, no. 1 (1999): 25-31.

2.0 Early Digital Journals and Serials Published by Librarians

Friedlander, Amy. "D-LIB Magazine: Publishing as the Honest Broker." The Serials Librarian 33, no. 1/2 (1998): 1-20.

———. "Really 10 Years Old?" D-Lib Magazine 11, no. 7/8 (2005).

Kirriemuir, John. "The Professional Web-Zine and Parallel Publishing: Ariadne: The Web Version." D-Lib Magazine (February 1997).

Osorio, Nestor L. "Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, the Official Journal of ACRL's Science and Technology Section: A Historical Perspective." Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, no. 67 (2011).

Robison, David F. W. "The Changing States of Current Cites: The Evolution of an Electronic Journal." Computers in Libraries 13 (June 1993): 21-26.

Tennant, Roy. "Current Cites: What a Long, Strange Trip It's Been." D-Lib Magazine 11, no. 9 (2005).

Tuttle, Marcia. "The Newsletter on Serials Pricing Issues." The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 111-127.

———. "The Newsletter on Serials Pricing Issues: Teetering on the Cutting Edge." In Advances in Serials Management: A Research Annual, vol. 4, ed. Marcia Tuttle and Jean G. Cook, 37-63. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1992.

Ward, Kevin. "The Katharine Sharp Review." Ariadne, no. 5 (1996).

Widzinski, Lori J. "The Evolution of MC Journal: A Case Study in Producing a Peer-Reviewed Electronic Journal." Serials Review 23, no. 2 (1997): 59-72.

———. "MC Journal: The Journal of Academic Media Librarianship." Ariadne, no. 5 (1996).

Wilson, Tom D. "Information Research: A Case Study in the Free Electronic Publication of Research." VINE 38, no. 2 (1998): 10-16.

3.0 Library-Based Scholarly Publishing Since the Budapest Open Access Initiative

Adema, Janneke, and Birgit Schmidt. "From Service Providers to Content Producers: New Opportunities for Libraries in Collaborative Open Access Book Publishing." New Review of Academic Librarianship 16, no. sup1 (2010): 28-43.

Alexander, Laurie, Jason Colman, Meredith Kahn, Amanda Peters, Charles Watkinson, and Rebecca Welzenbach. "Publishing as Pedagogy: Connecting Library Services and Technology." EDUCAUSE Review (2016).

Ayris, Paul. "Open Access E-Books: The Role of the Institution." Insights 27 (2014): 7-10.

This article explains the policy position taken by University College London (UCL) in establishing the UCL Press. It sets the creation of the Press against the background of national open access (OA) policy development in the UK. UCL Press, repatriated from a commercial provider, was relaunched as an OA press as part of UCL Library Services on 1 August 2013. The Press will publish both OA electronic journals and OA monographs, with a particular emphasis in the latter on the arts, humanities and social sciences. UCL is largely funding Press activity from its own internal funds, seeing OA as an opportunity rather than a threat.

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Ayris, Paul, and Lara Speicher. "UCL Press: the UK's 'First Fully Open Access' University Press." Insights 28, no. 3 (2015): 44-50.

The purpose of this article is to set in context the launch of University College London Press (UCL Press), which describes itself as the UK's first fully open access (OA) university press. The drivers for this launch are bound up with the global movement towards open access and open science—developments in which UCL is acknowledged as a European leader. The first part of the article looks at these movements and relates them to the relaunch in May 2015 of the UCL Press imprint as an OA imprint. This analysis has been undertaken by Dr Paul Ayris, Director of UCL Library Services and Chief Executive of UCL Press.

The second half of the article is a personal account by Lara Speicher, Publishing Manager at UCL Press, of the relaunch of the Press. This section looks at staffing structures, business models, technical infrastructures, publishing programmes and content.

In the final part of the article, Paul Ayris draws some conclusions from the history of the relaunch of UCL Press and sets these in the context of the global open science discussion.

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Blenko, Sarah. "Value-Driven Library Publishing Services at Research-Oriented Universities and Small Academic Libraries." iJourmal 3, no. 2 (2018).

Bonn, Maria. Getting the Word Out: Academic Libraries as Scholarly Publishers. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2015.

Brown, Allison P., ed. Library Publishing Toolkit. Geneseo: IDS Project Press, 2013.

Busher, Casey, and Irene Kamotsky. "Stories and Statistics from Library-Led Publishing." Learned Publishing 28, no. 1 (2015): 64-68.

Canty, Nick. "Libraries as Publishers: Turning the Page?" Alexandria 23, no. 1 (2012): 55-62.

Chadwell, Faye, and Shan C. Sutton. "The Future of Open Access and Library Publishing." New Library World 115, no. 5/6 (2014): 225-236.

Collister, Lauren B., Timothy S. Deliyannides, and Sharon Dyas-Correia. "The Library as Publisher." The Serials Librarian 66, no. 1-4 (2014): 20-29.,

Colman, Jason. "Sustainable Book Publishing as a Service at the University of Michigan." Journal of Electronic Publishing 12, no. 2 (2017).

Cox, John. "Communicating New Library Roles to Enable Digital Scholarship: A Review Article." New Review of Academic Librarianship 22, no. 2-3 (2016): 132-147.,

Crow, Raym, October Ivins, Allyson Mower, Daureen Nesdill, Mark Newton, Julie Speer, and Charles Watkinson. Library Publishing Services: Strategies for Success: Final Research Report (March 2012). Washington, DC: SPARC, 2012.

De Groote, Sandra L., and Mary M. Case. "What to Expect When You Are Not Expecting to Be a Publisher." OCLC Systems & Services: International Digital Library Perspectives 30, no. 3 (2014): 167-177.,

Dishman, Cath. "Developing an Open Journals Hosting Service: A Case Study from Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU)." Insights 20, no. 2 (2017): 85-91.

The rise of the concept of 'library as publisher' has caused many university libraries to consider their role in the world of open access (OA) publishing and how that supports digital scholarship at their institutions. This paper outlines Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) Library Services' first steps into that world through the offering of an open journals hosting service. It begins by explaining the background and justification for the library offering such a service and details the pilot undertaken to test the chosen system, Open Journal Systems (OJS). It considers what policies, procedures and support need to be in place in order to run a successful open journals hosting service. Lessons learned and observations gathered during the pilot are shared to help others considering setting up an open journals hosting service in their own institution. Finally it looks at the next steps for LJMU in taking this pilot forward to a full service offer.

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Elbae, Mikael K., and Lars Nondal. "The Library as a Mediator for E-Publishing: A Case On How a Library Can Become a Significant Factor in Facilitating Digital Scholarly Communication and Open Access Publishing for Less Web-savvy Journals." First Monday 12, no. 10 (2017).

Farne, Tabatha A., and Suzanne L. Byerley. "Publishing a Student Research Journal: A Case Study." portal: Libraries and the Academy 10, no. 3 (2010).

Fruin, Christine. "Organization and Delivery of Scholarly Communications Services by Academic and Research Libraries in the United Kingdom: Observations from Across the Pond." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 5, no. 1 (2017): eP2157.

INTRODUCTION The U.K. library community has implemented collaborative strategies in key scholarly communication areas such as open access mandate compliance, and U.S. librarians could benefit from learning in greater detail about the practices and experiences of U.K. libraries with respect to how they have organized scholarly communication services. METHODS In order to better understand the scholarly communication activities in U.K. academic and research libraries, and how U.S. libraries could apply that experience in the context of their own priorities, an environmental scan via a survey of U.K. research libraries and in-person interviews were conducted. RESULTS U.K. libraries concentrate their scholarly communication services on supporting compliance with open access mandates and in the development of new services that reflect libraries' shifting role from information consumer to information producer. DISCUSSION Due to the difference in the requirements of open access mandates in the U.K. as compared to the U.S., scholarly communication services in the U.K. are more focused on supporting compliance efforts. U.S. libraries engage more actively in providing copyright education and consultation than U.K. libraries. Both U.K. and U.S. libraries have developed new services in the areas of research data management and library publishing. CONCLUSION There are three primary takeaways from the experience of U.K. scholarly communication practitioners for U.S. librarians: increase collaboration with offices of research, reconsider current organization and delegation of scholarly communication services, and increase involvement in legislative and policy-making activity in the U.S. with respect to access to research.

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Georgiou, Panos, and Giannis Tsakonas. "Digital Scholarly Publishing and Archiving Services by Academic Libraries: Case Study of the University of Patras." Liber Quarterly 20, no. 2 (2010): 242-257.

Gilman, Isaac. "Adjunct No More: Promoting Scholarly Publishing as a Core Service of Academic Libraries." Against the Grain 26, no. 6 (2017): Article 14.

———. Library Scholarly Communication Programs: Legal and Ethical Considerations. Oxford: Chandos Publishing, 2013.

Ginther, Clara, Karin Lackner, and Christian Kaier. "Publication Services at the University Library Graz: A New Venture, a New Role." New Review of Academic Librarianship 23, no. 2-3 (2017): 136-147.

Hacker, Andrea, and Elizabeth Corrao. "Laying Tracks as the Train Approaches: Innovative Open Access Book Publishing at Heidelberg University from the Editors' Point of View." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 48, no. 2 (2017): 76-89.

Hahn, Karla L. Research Library Publishing Services: New Options for University Publishing. Washington, DC: ARL, 2008.

Harboe-Ree, Cathrine. "Just Advanced Librarianship: The Role of Academic Libraries as Publishers." Australian Academic & Research Libraries 38, no. 1 (2007): 15-25.

Harley, Diane, ed. The University as Publisher: Summary of a Meeting Held at UC Berkeley on November 1, 2007. Berkeley: Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2008.

Hawkins, Kevin S. "Achieving Financial Sustainability: Are We Asking the Wrong Questions?" Journal of Electronic Publishing 20, no. 2 (2017).

While technology has made producing copies of digital content almost entirely free, there is no escaping that publishing, according to most definitions of the term, still requires time and money. Any publishing service offered by a library must find a way to achieve financial sustainability—that is, operate without losing money.

However, even "losing money" is a tricky concept, especially when taking into account varying definitions of operating expenses (overhead costs) under different models for auxiliary services. Libraries are by their very nature cost centers, providing services without the expectation of recovering revenue, and are usually part of larger organizations that similarly provide services under partial or full subsidies. While libraries are often comfortable with charging for convenience services and for services to those outside their designed community of users, careful thought should be given to which costs a publishing service—or any new service—should be expected to recover.

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———. "The Evolution of Publishing Agreements at the University of Michigan Library." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 4 (2014): eP1175.

Taking as an example an open-access journal with a single editor, this article discusses the various configurations of rights agreements used by the University of Michigan Library throughout the evolution of its publishing operation, the advantages of the various models, and the reasons for moving from one to another

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Henry, Charles. "Rice University Press: Fons et Origo." Journal of Electronic Publishing 10, no. 2 (2007).

Ho, Adrian K. "Creating and Hosting Student-Run Research Journals: A Case Study." Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research 6, no. 2 (2011).

Kate, Lara. "The Library's Role in the Management and Funding of Open Access Publishing." Learned Publishing 28, no. 1 (2015): 4-8.

Keller, Alice. "Library Support for Open Access Journal Publishing: A Needs Analysis." Insights 28, no. 3 (2015): 19-31.

The aim of this study was to establish the role of academic libraries in the context of open access (OA) journal publishing, based on the perceived needs of the journals and/or their editors. As a study sample, 14 OA journals affiliated to the University of Zürich, Switzerland, were taken. They were very different in nature, ranging from well-established society journals to newly founded titles launched by dedicated individuals. The study comprised two approaches: a comprehensive journal assessment and subsequent editor interviews. The journal assessments evaluated the functionalities, ease of use, sustainability and visibility of the journal. The interviews were used to get additional background information about the journals and explore editors' needs, experiences and viewpoints. The results show that journals affiliated to publishing houses or libraries are technically well provided for. Unaffiliated journals offer fewer functionalities and display some unconventional features, often described as innovations by the editors. More resources—financial or human—is seen by nearly all editors as the most pressing need and as a limitation to growth. In comparison, IT/technical needs are mentioned much less often. The article also describes the launch of an Editors' Forum, an idea suggested by the editors and implemented by the library. This Forum offered further valuable insight into the potential role of libraries, but also specifically addressed several of the editors' needs as expressed in the interviews.

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Kosavic, Andrea. "The York Digital Journals Project: Strategies for Institutional Open Journal Systems Implementations." College & Research Libraries 71, no. 4 (2010): 310-321.

Lawson, Stuart. "Library Publishing Services: An Investigation into Open Access Publishing in Academic Libraries." University of Brighton, 2013.

Lefevre, Julie, and Terence K. Huwe. "Digital Publishing from the Library: A New Core Competency." Journal of Web Librarianship 7, no. 2 (2013): 190-214.

Lippincott, Sarah Kalikman. "The Library Publishing Coalition: Organizing Libraries to Enhance Scholarly Publishing." Insights 29, no. 2 (2016): 186-191.

Library-based publishing efforts are gaining traction in academic and research libraries across the world, primarily in response to perceived gaps in the scholarly publishing system. Though publishing is a new area of work for libraries, it is often a natural outgrowth of their existing infrastructure and skill sets, leveraging the institutional repository as publishing platform and repositioning librarians' skills as information managers. For decades, these initiatives were primarily ad hoc and local, limiting the potential for library publishing to effect significant change. In 2013, over 60 academic and research libraries collectively founded the Library Publishing Coalition (LPC), a professional association expressly charged with facilitating knowledge sharing, collaboration and advocacy for this growing field. This article offers an overview of library publishing activity, primarily in the US, followed by an account of the creation and mission of the LPC, the first professional association dedicated wholly to the support of library publishers.

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Little, Geoffrey Robert. "Nothing New Under the Sun: Library Publishing and the Concordia University." Journal of Electronic Publishing 12, no. 2 (2017).

The author of Ecclesiastes tells us that there is nothing new under the sun.[1] In their excellent 2015 report The Once and Future Publishing Library, Ann Okerson and Alex Holzman remind readers that library publishing has a venerable history. Indeed, many of the oldest North American university presses like those at Johns Hopkins, North Carolina, and Toronto were set up by librarians or based in the university library system.[2] Since 2013 we have been working on a project at Concordia University in Montreal to establish a university press that will be based in our library and that will publish peer-reviewed monographs in the humanities, social sciences, and fine arts. Digital editions will be available open access under a creative commons licence, while print books will be simultaneously published where and when appropriate and available for purchase by individual readers and libraries. Authors will be published irrespective of their institutional affiliation. This paper is a brief description of our project that includes an overview of our processes and planning, lessons learned, and next steps in the short and long terms.

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———. "Old Traditions and New Technologies: Creating Concordia University Press." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 49, no. 2 (2018): 213-230.

Loizides, Fernando. "Sustaining the Growth of Library Scholarly Publishing in a New University Press." Information Services & Use 36, no. 3-4 (2016): 147-158.

McIntyre, Gordon, Janice Chan, and Julia Gross. "Library as Scholarly Publishing Partner: Keys to Success." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 1 (2013): eP1091.

Many academic libraries are looking at new ways to add value when they deliver services to faculty, and one potential area where the library can provide new services is in partnering with academic staff to support the dissemination of faculty research. Librarians have traditionally helped faculty researchers at the beginning of the research cycle, with the discovery and delivery of information sources. However, they are now playing a role at the end of the research cycle, providing services that support scholarly publishing. This paper examines library participation in faculty-led publishing ventures. In particular, it explores the value that smaller research libraries can provide to faculty editors through journal hosting, which will be analysed through an examination of the successful migration of the Australian Journal of Teacher Education, a faculty-administered journal at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia, to the University's institutional repository. This transition provided library staff members at Edith Cowan University opportunities to develop new knowledge and skills in journal publishing, while meeting the journal's need for a better way to manage a growing influx of article submissions. The resultant faculty-library partnership enabled more effective management of the journal and has contributed to its growing success. The evaluative framework developed to enable assessment of the success of this journal's transition can help other libraries demonstrate the success of their own journal hosting ventures.

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McMahon, Melody Layton. "The Library as Publisher? Is It Possible for a Small Library?" Theological Librarianship 8, no. 1 (2015): 4-6.

Missingham, Roxanne, and Lorena Kanellopoulos. "University Presses in Libraries: Potential for Successful Marriages." OCLC Systems & Services: International Digital Library Perspectives 30, no. 3 (2014): 158-166.,

Moody, Fred. "Rice University Press: Nascentis Fame." Journal of Electronic Publishing 16, no. 1 (2013).

Okerson, Ann, and Alex Holzman. The Once and Future Publishing Library. Washington, DC: CLIR, 2015.

Park,Ji-Hong, and Jiyoung Shim. "Exploring How Library Publishing Services Facilitate Scholarly Communication." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 43, no. 1 (2011): 76-89.

Perry, Anali Maughan, Carol Ann Borchert, Timothy S. Deliyannides, Andrea Kosavic, Rebecca Kennison, and Sharon Dyas-Correia. "Libraries as Journal Publishers." Serials Review 37, no. 3 (2011): 196-204.

Pitcher, Kate. "Library Publishing of Open Textbooks: The Open SUNY Textbooks Program." Against the Grain 26, no. 5 (2014): Article 10.

Raju, Reggie, and Jeremiah Pietersen. "Library as Publisher: From an African Lens." Journal of Electronic Publishing 20, no. 2 (2017).

Africa is trapped in two paradoxical situations. The first is that the production of research is dependent on access to research— African researchers have been hamstrung by limited access to relevant and authentic scholarly literature to support the growth in their research output. It has been mooted that the saviour is improved access to open content. This gives rise to the second paradox—open access removes the financial barriers to the end user. In this new paradigm, the cash-cow for publishers is now the author via the payment of article processing charges (APCs). However, African researchers, in the main, cannot afford these exorbitant APCs, limiting their capacity to publish excellent research in leading international journals that have an OA publishing option.

Hence, it is incumbent on research intensive institutions on the African continent to take the lead in sharing scholarly output to engender and nurture a culture of research at those African institutions that are overwhelmed by low research output. To support the dissemination of trusted and relevant scholarly content, African libraries need to provide proactive 'library as publisher' services. These services must be delivered for non-profit purposes and must be underpinned by 'philanthropic-social justice' principles.

Some South African academic institutions, via their libraries, have stepped-up to the plate to make scholarly freely content accessible to both users and authors via suite of diamond open access services. The library as a publisher must gain traction quickly as a mainstream service provided by the higher education libraries in South Africa.

This paper will examine the new trend of library as a publisher from a developing world perspective. The benefits for the provision of 'library as publisher' service is colossal for development in the global South.

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Rayner, Sarah, and Desmond Coyle. "Books Right Here Right Now at the University of Manchester Library." Insights 29, no. 2 (2016): 172-180.

Books Right Here Right Now is a strategic project to radically change core text provision at the University of Manchester. In order to investigate new models for electronic textbook delivery, the project team are running a series of e-textbook pilots, providing textbooks directly to our students via the virtual learning environment.

This paper focuses on how usage data and the views of our students and academic staff are underpinning the project in terms of acquisition models, negotiations with publishers and providing a new product to our students. Having detailed the project findings, the article concludes with the authors' thoughts on the changing environment of the e-textbook market and the various issues within the existing models of e-textbook provision, giving recommendations as to how academic libraries and publishers can help to shape a sustainable model for the UK.

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Richard, Jennifer, Denise Koufogiannakis, and Pam Ryan. "Librarians and Libraries Supporting Open Access Publishing." Canadian Journal of Higher Education 39, no. 3 (2009): 33-48.

Saunders, Richard L. "Where Do We Go From Here? Starting Up an Academic Journal In a Smaller Institution." Journal of Electronic Publishing 12, no. 2 (2017).

There is no reliable formula for starting or sustaining a scholarly journal. This essay encourages readers to develop and address sustainable editorial and publication processes, addressing five key elements that increase the likelihood that a journal can be successfully sustained over time.

Adding one's voice to the slow, measured conversation that is professional literature is one of the key functions of academic life. Disseminating advances in knowledge and understanding has traditionally been a function of academic institutions and professional organizations. For five hundred years that conversation has involved printed matter, first in the form of books and then scholarly journals. Within a handful of years from 1450 the number of printers and publishers in operation skyrocketed from one press to over two hundred. Many presses were associated formally or informally with universities, creating an explosion in the availability and expectations of scholarship, inquiry, and creativity from which we are still feeling the repercussions five centuries later. Printing became thereafter a commercial enterprise requiring heavy investments in equipment, supplies, and expertise. During the industrial age universities exploited the widespread availability of printing to begin publications targeted at small and focused readerships in particular fields. Only in the past two centuries has peer review added rigor to the process of scholarly communication. By the mid-twentieth century, the rise of commercial publishers began to aggregate the publication functions, taking over journals from universities and professional societies. One result has been a continuous spiral of journal subscription costs. The digital revolution once again puts the capacity for a "printing press" within the reach of academic institutions and levels the field for scholarship. What we have lost in the intervening years is familiarity with the decisions and procedures of publication within the academic support structure, and within libraries specifically.

This essay illustrates decisions and opportunities which need definition when establishing and disseminating a viable scholarly journal. Each concern and issue should be considered and resolved; each decision will lead to other decisions as academic institutions once again transcend being merely warehouses for knowledge and become again disseminators of it. The comments here are drawn from lessons learned over several years working in the publishing industry and as an author myself. It is not a how-to guide, nor does it guarantee success. The observations are prompts intended to help librarians as would-be publishers think carefully. The goal for this article is not to encourage library publishing per se, but rather to help readers understand the moving parts involved in establishing a flexible, resilient process that can sustain a publication in the long term and independent of the personalities driving its creation. I presume that libraries will be required to start small and bootstrap their journals into existence, for the sort of investment capital start-up common to the tech and software industries is typically lacking in academia. I also presume that institutions will craft a scholarly journal rather than a trade journal or non-specialist magazine. Comments are grouped into five broad sections or processes for convenience. Key points are rendered in italics for convenience and clarity within paragraphs.

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Schlosser, Melanie. "Write up! A Study of Copyright Information on Library-Published Journals." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 4 (2016).

INTRODUCTION Libraries have a mission to educate users about copyright, and library publishing staff are often involved in that work. This article investigates a concrete point of intersection between the two areas—copyright statements on library-published journals. METHODS Journals published by members of the Library Publishing Coalition were examined for open access status, type and placement of copyright information, copyright ownership, and open licensing. RESULTS Journals in the sample were overwhelmingly (93%) open access. 80% presented copyright information of some kind, but only 30% of those included it at both the journal and the article level. Open licensing was present in 38% of the journals, and the most common ownership scenario was the author retaining copyright while granting a nonexclusive license to the journal or publisher. 9% of the sample journals included two or more conflicting rights statements. DISCUSSION 76% of the journals did not consistently provide accurate, easily-accessible rights information, and numerous problems were found with the use of open licensing, including conflicting licenses, incomplete licenses, and licenses not appearing at the article level. CONCLUSION Recommendations include presenting full copyright and licensing information at both the journal and the article level, careful use of open licenses, and publicly-available author agreements.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Skinner, Katherine, Sarah Lippincott, Julie Speer, and Tyler Walters. "Library-as-Publisher: Capacity Building for the Library Publishing Subfield." Journal of Electronic Publishing 17, no. 2 (2014).

Sondervan, Jeroen, and Fleur Stigter. "Sustainable Open Access for Scholarly Journals in 6 Years —The Incubator Model at Utrecht University Library Open Access Journals." Learned Publishing 31, no. 3 (2018): 230-234.

Stockham, Marcia G., Elizabeth Turtle, and Charlene N. Simser. "Libraries as Publishers: A Winning Combination." OCLC Systems & Services: International Digital Library Perspectives 31, no. 2 (2015): 69-75.

Stone, Graham. "Huddersfield Open Access Publishing." Information Services & Use 31, no. 3-4 (2011): 215-223.

Stone, Graham, Kathrine Jensen, and Megan Beech. "Publishing Undergraduate Research: Linking Teaching and Research through a Dedicated Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journal." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 47, no. 2 (2016): 147-170.,

Taylor, Megan, and Kathrine S. H. Jensen. "Engaging and Supporting a University Press Scholarly Community." Publications 6, no. 2 (2018): 13.

In this paper we explore how the development of The University of Huddersfield Press, a publisher of open access scholarly journals and monographs, has enabled the sharing of research with a wider online audience. We situate the development of the Press within a wider research environment and growing community of New University Presses (NUPs) where there is an increasing demand for demonstrating research impact, which drives the need for improved analysis and reporting of impact data, a task that often falls within the remit of library and academic support services. We detail the benefits of the University Press Manager role in terms of ensuring professional service that delivers consistency and sustainability. We go on to outline the experiences of engaging with different online spaces and detail the extensive support for student authors. We argue that in order for the Press to support building a strong and engaged scholarly community and provide new spaces for emerging research, continued investment in both platform development and infrastructure is required.

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Thomas, Sarah E. "Publishing Solutions for Contemporary Scholars: The Library as Innovator and Partner." Publishing Research Quarterly 22, no. 2 (2006): 27-37.

Tracy, Daniel G. "Libraries as Content Producers: How Library Publishing Services Address the Reading Experience." College & Research Libraries 78, no. 2 (2017): 219-240.

———. "The Users of Library Publishing Services: Readers and Access Beyond Open." Journal of Electronic Publishing 18, no. 3 (2015).

Unsworth, John M. "Pubrarians and Liblishers at 20: Reflections on Library Publishing from 1995-2014." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 4 (2014): eP1201.

Vandegrift, Micah, and Josh Bolick. ""Free to All": Library Publishing and the Challenge of Open Access." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 4 (2014): eP1181.

There is a significant and important responsibility as libraries move into the role of publishing to retain our heritage of "access for all." Connecting and collaborating with colleagues in the publishing industry is essential, but should come with the understanding that the library as an organization is access-prone. This article discusses the complexities of navigating that relationship, and calls for libraries and publishers to embrace and respect the position from which we begin. Finally, the article forecasts several possible characteristics of what "publishing" might look like if libraries press the principle of access in this growing area.

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Walters, Tyler. "The Future Role of Publishing Services in University Libraries Initiatives." portal: Libraries and the Academy 8, no. 4 (2008): 425-454.

Watkinson, Charles. "The University as Publisher Revisited." Insights 27, no. 2 (2014): 181-185.

This article explores the growing involvement of libraries in providing publishing services for the informal scholarly outputs traditionally referred to as 'gray literature'. By envisioning institutional repository (IR) infrastructure as a publishing platform, libraries can bring conference proceedings, technical reports, niche journals, white papers and other hard-to-source materials into the mainstream. The opportunities of such an approach for scholars, libraries and university presses open to collaboration are considered. Several directions for future expansion of this activity, such as the publication of student scholarship and the development of more formal products linked to gray literature, are suggested.

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Xia, Jingfeng. "Library Publishing as a New Model of Scholarly Communication." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 40, no. 4 (2009): 370-338.

4.0 Technical Publishing Infrastructure

Altman, Micah, Eleni Castro, Mercè Crosas, Philip Durbin, Alex Garnett, and Jen Whitney. "Open Journal Systems and Dataverse Integration—Helping Journals to Upgrade Data Publication for Reusable Research." Code4Lib Journal, no. 30 (2015).

This article describes the novel open source tools for open data publication in open access journal workflows. This comprises a plugin for Open Journal Systems that supports a data submission, citation, review, and publication workflow; and an extension to the Dataverse system that provides a standard deposit API. We describe the function and design of these tools, provide examples of their use, and summarize their initial reception. We conclude by discussing future plans and potential impact.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Bankier, Jean-Gabriel, and Irene Perciali. "The Institutional Repository Rediscovered: What Can a University Do for Open Access Publishing?" Serials Review 34, no. 1 (2008): 21-26.

Büttner, Alexandra, Sabine Gehrlein, and Stefanie Clormann. "Online Survey on Open Journal Systems in Germany and the Network" Scholarly and Research Communication 7, no. 1 (2016).

Castro, Eleni, and Alex Garnett. "Building a Bridge Between Journal Articles and Research Data: The PKP-Dataverse Integration Project." International Journal of Digital Curation 9, no. 1 (2014): 176-184.

A growing number of funding agencies and international scholarly organizations are requesting that research data be made more openly available to help validate and advance scientific research. Thus, this is an opportune moment for research data repositories to partner with journal editors and publishers in order to simplify and improve data curation and publishing practices. One practical example of this type of cooperation is currently being facilitated by a two year (2012-2014) one million dollar Sloan Foundation grant, integrating two well-established open source systems: the Public Knowledge Project's (PKP) Open Journal Systems (OJS), developed by Stanford University and Simon Fraser University; and Harvard University's Dataverse Network web application, developed by the Institute for Quantitative Social Science (IQSS). To help make this interoperability possible, an OJS Dataverse plugin and Data Deposit API are being developed, which together will allow authors to submit their articles and datasets through an existing journal management interface, while the underlying data are seamlessly deposited into a research data repository, such as the Harvard Dataverse. This practice paper will provide an overview of the project, and a brief exploration of some of the specific challenges to and advantages of this integration.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales License.

Cyzyk, Mark, and Sayeed Choudhury. "A Survey and Evaluation of Open-Source Electronic Publishing Systems." (2008).

Daly, Rebecca, and Michael Organ. "Research Online: Digital Commons as a Publishing Platform at the University of Wollongong, Australia." Serials Review 35, no. 3 (2009): 149-153.,

Elizarov, A. M., D. S. Zuev, and E. K. Lipachev. "Electronic Scientific Journal-Management Systems." Scientific and Technical Information Processing 41, no. 1 (2014): 66-72.

Eve, Martin Paul, and Andy Byers. "Janeway: A Scholarly Communications Platform." Insights 31, no. 15 (2018).

Bearing these considerations in mind, the Centre for Technology and Publishing at Birkbeck, University of London embarked upon building a journal submission and hosting platform, Janeway, learning from our experiences of running the Open Library of Humanities (OLH). We knew Open Journal Systems (OJS) well at this time, but were not big fans of PHP, the language in which it is written. We also were aware of the work being done by Coko (the Collaborative Knowledge Foundation) in Node.js. What we really craved, though, was a scholarly communications platform written in Python/Django. This was not just a language preference but was also linked to issues around hiring and simplicity, as mentioned above. Python was the most popular programming language in 2017, which would mean that a platform in this language would be comprehensible to a wide range of programmers.1 So, we chose to write in Python using the Django framework, since this is a well-known, stable, and secure framework for the development of web applications. The platform's ongoing development is funded by a combination of revenue streams: from the OLH, which has begun using the platform as part of a mixed economy of suppliers, and from hosting services that we are providing to others.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Fleming, Rachel, and Laura Cruz. "Partnerships: The Engaged University and Library Publishing." OCLC Systems & Services: International Digital Library Perspectives 31, no. 4 (2015): 196-203.

Loubani, Tarek, Alison Sinclair, Sally Murray, Claire Kendall, Anita Palepu, Anne Marie Todkill, and John Willinsky. "No Budget, No Worries: Free and Open Source Publishing Software in Biomedical Publishing." Open Medicine 2, no. 4 (2008): e114-e120.

MacGregor, James, Kevin Stranack, and John Willinsky. "The Public Knowledge Project: Open Source Tools for Open Access to Scholarly Communication." In Opening Science: The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration and Scholarly Publishing, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, 165-175. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Mattson, Mark, and Linda Friend. "A Planning Perspective for Library Journal Publishing Services." OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives 30, no. 3 (2014): 178-191.,

McHale, Nina. "Open Access Publishing with Drupal." Code4Lib.Journal, no. 15 (2011).

In January 2009, the Colorado Association of Libraries (CAL) suspended publication of its print quarterly journal, Colorado Libraries, as a cost-saving measure in a time of fiscal uncertainty. Printing and mailing the journal to its 1300 members cost CAL more than $26,000 per year. Publication of the journal was placed on an indefinite hiatus until the editorial staff proposed an online, open access format a year later. The benefits to migrating to open access included: significantly lower costs; a green platform; instant availability of content; a greater level of access to users with disabilities; and a higher level of visibility of the journal and the association. The editorial staff chose Drupal, including the E-journal module, and while Drupal is notorious for its steep learning curve—which exacerbated delays to content that had been created before the publishing hiatus—the fourth electronic issue was published recently at This article will discuss both the benefits and challenges of transitioning to an open access model and the choice Drupal as a platform over other more established journal software options.

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McKiernan, Gerry. "Web-Based Journal Manuscript Management and Peer-Review Software and Systems." Library Hi Tech News 19, no. 7 (2002).

Owen, Brian, And Kevin Stranack. "The Public Knowledge Project and Open Journal Systems: Open Source Options for Small Publishers." Learned Publishing 25, no. 2 (2012): 138--144.

Royster, Paul. "Publishing Original Content in an Institutional Repository." Serials Review 34, no. 1 (2008): 27-30.

Samuels, Ruth Gallegos, and Henry Griffy. "Evaluating Open Source Software for Use in Library Initiatives: A Case Study Involving Electronic Publishing." portal: Libraries and the Academy 12, no. 1 (2012): 41-62.

Staines, Heather Ruland. "Digital Open Annotation with Hypothesis: Supplying the Missing Capability of the Web." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 49, no. 3 (2018): 345-365.

Willinsky, John. "Toward the Design of an Open Monograph." Journal of Electronic Publishing 12, no. 1 (2009).

Wodtke, Larissa. "Online Resources for Scholarly Journal Publishing." Scholarly and Research Communication 9, no. 1 (2018).

5.0 Library and University Press Mergers/Partnerships and Other Relevant Works

Adema, Janneke, and Graham Stone. Changing Publishing Ecologies: A Landscape Study of New University Presses and Academic-Led Publishing. London: JISC, 2017.

New university presses and scholarly publishing in the library are increasingly playing an important role in the shift of scholarly communications. The US-based Library Publishing Coalition defines these new library-led presses as a "set of activities led by college and university libraries to support the creation, dissemination, and curation of scholarly, creative, and/or educational works." (Skinner et al., 2014; Library Publishing Coalition, 2013). They typically embrace open access, digital first, new business models, enable universities to meet strategic goals including outreach and impact, and facilitate researchers in publishing research outputs.

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Adema, Janneke, and Graham Stone. "The Surge in New University Presses and Academic-Led Publishing: an Overview of a Changing Publishing Ecologyin the UK." LIBER Quarterly 27, no. 1 (2017): 97-126.

This article outlines the rise and development of New University Presses and Academic-Led Presses in the UK or publishing for the UK market. Based on the Jisc research project, Changing publishing ecologies: a landscape study of new university presses and academic-led publishing, commonalities between these two types of presses are identified to better assess their future needs and requirements. Based on this analysis, the article argues for the development of a publishing toolkit, for further research into the creation of a typology of presses and publishing initiatives, and for support with community building to help these initiatives grow and develop further, whilst promoting a more diverse publishing ecology.

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The Association of American University Presses. Library-Press Collaboration Survey: New York, NY, 2013.

Bains, Simon. "The Role of the Library in Scholarly Publishing: The University of Manchester Experience." Insights 39, no. 3 (2017): 70-77.

The emergence of networked digital methods of scholarly dissemination has transformed the role of the academic library in the context of the research life cycle. It now plays an important role in the dissemination of research outputs (e.g. through repository management and gold open access publication processing) as well as more traditional acquisition and collection management. The University of Manchester Library and Manchester University Press have developed a strategic relationship to consider how they can work in partnership to support new approaches to scholarly publishing. They have delivered two projects to understand researcher and student needs and to develop tools and services to meet these needs. This work has found that the creation of new journal titles is costly and provides significant resourcing challenges and that support for student journals in particular is mixed amongst senior academic administrators. Research has suggested that there is more value to the University in the provision of training in scholarly publishing than in the creation of new in-house journal titles. Where such titles are created, careful consideration of sustainable business models is vital.

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Clement, Richard W. "Library and University Press Integration: A New Vision for University Publishing." Journal of Library Administration 51, no. 5-6 (2011): 507-528.,

Horava, Tony. "Making OA Monographs Happen: Library-Press Collaboration at the University of Ottawa, Canada." Insights 29, no. 1 (2016): 57-63.

At the University of Ottawa, Canada, the UO Press and the UO Library have developed a strategic partnership to publish and disseminate selected new monographs as gold open access (OA). Starting in 2013, the Library agreed to fund three books at C$10,000 per book (a total of C$30,000 per year) in order to remove barriers to accessing scholarship and to align with scholarly communication goals of the University. In 2015 this agreement was renewed for another three years and the funding was increased to cover four books (a total of C$40,000 per year). Ten titles have so far been published under this model. The data reveals that there have been 12,629 downloads as well as 16,584 page views of these titles, as of September 2015. There have been over 4,700 copies (print and EPUB) sold in spite of the free availability of the PDF version. This program has been very successful in terms of increasing the visibility and impact of the Press's publications; in providing unrestricted access to new scholarly research; and also in providing a significant source of revenue for the Press. The goals, process and outcomes are described in the context of the UO Press and the UO Library.

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Lockett, Andrew, and Lara Speicher. "New University Presses in the UK: Accessing a Mission." Learned Publishing 29, no. S1 (2016): 320-329.

McCormick, Monica. "Learning to Say Maybe: Building NYU's Press/Library Collaboration." Against the Grain 20, no. 6 (2008): Article 8.

Mrva-Montoya, Agata. "Open Access Strategy for a 'New' University Press: A View through the Stakeholder Lens." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 48, no. 4 (2017): 221-242.

Newton, Mark P., Eva T. Cunningham, and Kerri O'Connell. "Counting the Cost: A Report on APC-Supported Open Access Publishing in a Research Library." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 4 (2014): eP1184.

BACKGROUND At one-hundred twenty-two articles published, the open access journal Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements (Tremor) is growing its readership and expanding its influence among patients, clinicians, researchers, and the general public interested in issues of non-Parkinsonian tremor disorders. Among the characteristics that set the journal apart from similar publications, Tremor is published in partnership with the library-based publications program at Columbia University's Center for Digital Research and Scholarship (CDRS). DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM The production of Tremor in conjunction with its editor, a researching faculty member, clinician, and epidemiologist at the Columbia University Medical Center, has pioneered several new workflows at CDRS: article-charge processing, coordination of vendor services, integration into PubMed Central, administration of publication scholarships granted through a patient-advocacy organization, and open source platform development among them. Open access publishing ventures in libraries often strive for lean operations by attempting to capitalize on the scholarly impact available through the use of templated and turnkey publication systems. For CDRS, production on Tremor has provided opportunity to build operational capacity for more involved publication needs. The following report introduces a framework and account of the costs of producing such a publication as a guide to library and other non-traditional publishing operations interested in gauging the necessary investments. Following a review of the literature published to date on the costs of open access publishing and of the practice of journal publishing in academic libraries, the authors present a brief history of Tremor and a tabulation of the costs and expenditure of effort by library staff in production. NEXT STEPS Although producing Tremor has been more expensive than other partner publications in the center's portfolio, the experiences have improved the library's capacity for addressing more challenging projects, and developments for Tremor have already begun to be applied to other journals.

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Quinn, Lisa, and Charlotte Innerd. "The Evolution(s) of Wilfrid Laurier University Press: Toward Library-University Press Integration." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 49, no. 2 (2018): 153-165.

Roh, Charlotte. "Library-Press Collaborations: A Study Taken on Behalf of the University of Arizona." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 4 (2014): eP1102.

BACKGROUND The University of Arizona Press moved under the University of Arizona Library both physically and administratively a few years ago, echoing a trend amongst university presses: 20 AAUP members now are under the administration of university libraries. To understand the new evolving relationships in scholarly communication, a review of university press and library collaborations was undertaken by the University of Arizona Press and the University of Arizona Library through the Association of Research Libraries Career Enhancement Program (ARL CEP). LITERATURE REVIEW There has been much written throughout the years on both the acrimonious and collaborative relationships between university presses and academic libraries. Much of the literature includes either editorials or case studies, with one or two major reviews of scholarly communications and the state of publishing. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT During the course of nine weeks, the ARL CEP Fellow reviewed existing literature, interviewed staff at the University of Arizona Press and Library, and conducted 27 informal interviews with library deans, press directors, and scholarly communications leaders. The interviews addressed the partnership history, structure, motivations, goals and needs, administrative support and budget decisions, key stakeholders, and thoughts on the future of their relationships as well as scholarly communications. Then University of Arizona Library and Press staff were interviewed regarding their perceptions of their roles and each other's roles. NEXT STEPS This research report includes findings from the literature review and interviews as well as specific recommendations for the University of Arizona that will be implemented to improve and build relationships going forward.

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Shearer, Kathleen. A Review of Emerging Models in Canadian Academic Publishing. Toronto: University of British Columbia Library, 2010.

Sisättõ, Outi, Kati Mäki, anja Heikkilä, and Jane Katjavivi. "University Presses and University Libraries as Publishers: New Models and Benefits." (2012).

Sutton, Shan C, and Faye A Chadwell. "Open Textbooks at Oregon State University: A Case Study of New Opportunities for Academic Libraries and University Presses." Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 4 (2014): eP1174.

INTRODUCTION This article describes a joint open textbook publishing initiative begun in 2013 between Oregon State University (OSU) Libraries and Press and the Open Educational Resources and Emerging Technologies unit of Oregon State University's Extended Campus. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM This initiative combines the Open Access values and project management resources of OSU Libraries, the book production (peer review, editing, design, marketing) expertise of OSU Press, and the technological development skills of the Open Educational Resources and Emerging Technologies unit. Authored by OSU faculty and focused across some of the University's signature areas, the initiative seeks to establish a sustainable model for research libraries and university presses to collaborate with each other and other partners to publish open textbooks that will benefit students on both economic and educational levels. The article analyzes how open textbooks fit within the emerging library publishing movement, examines the implementation of the OSU open textbook publishing initiative, and conveys some lessons learned for other libraries to consider as they entertain the possibility of similar collaborations. NEXT STEPS A description of next steps includes tracking course adoptions of the textbooks as well as establishing sustainable digital publishing platforms and business models.

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Taylor, Donald, Heather Morrison, Brian Owen, Kumiko Vézina, and Andrew Waller. "Open Access Publishing in Canada: Current and Future Library and University Press Supports." Publications 1, no. 1 (2013): 27-48.

Taylor, Laurie N., Brian W. Keith, Chelsea Dinsmore, and Meredith Morris-Babb. SPEC Kit 357: Libraries, Presses, and Publishing. Washington, DC: ARL, 2017.

Thatcher Sanford, G. "Open-Access Monograph Publishing and the Origins of the Office of Digital Scholarly Publishing at Penn State University." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 46, no. 3 (2015): 203-223.

Tsoukala, Victoria. University-Based Open Access Publishing: State Of Play. Apeldoorn: SPARC Europe, 2015.

This report, prepared for SPARC Europe, sketches the landscape of university-based not-for-profit publishing in Europe with a primary focus on open access publishing of journals. It provides a view of the different types of initiatives in terms of their size, operational and business models, technologies used, stakeholder involvement, concentration of scientific fields, growth, as well as regional characteristics and recommendations for SPARC Europe and DOAJ.

The report attests to a rich and continuously evolving ecology of open access publishing initiatives in universities in Europe and elsewhere. Beyond the commercial publishing models, it appears that university libraries are largely the foci of intense activity in journal publishing and books (primarily where a university press exists), while national governments are moving towards building national collections, national portals and services paid for by public funds to make research published within the country more relevant and accessible internationally. This ecology is primarily populated by small publishers who are largely invisible, and much smaller numbers of large and medium-sized university-based activities. At the same time, a growing number of innovative initiatives in the University and outside, mostly initiated by scholars and University Presses, eager to experiment in developing a fair and sustainable scholarly communications system, attests to a vibrant and swiftly-evolving landscape.

Fragmentation permeates this landscape, especially at the level of medium and small-sized initiatives, which suggests that services may not be as effective as required by the research community, and that more coordination, collaboration and systematization is necessary between such initiatives. Further, information on them is especially hard to discover, particularly in Europe, and they are mostly discovered on a case-by-case basis. Precisely this fragmentation and lack of systematization and information prevents the drawing of safe conclusions on some of the issues researched in this report, such as for example measuring the output of initiatives, i.e. the numbers of open access journals run by such initiatives and the numbers of open access articles, a significant part of which do not appear in main registries, such as DOAJ or DOAB. More concrete conclusions, however, can be drawn in other areas: the first is that such initiatives largely concern journal publishing and are mostly led by research libraries, who have thoroughly embraced the concept of open access and, at least in the United States, are gradually and confidently assuming the role of publishers. Presses are often involved, especially where the open access publication of books is concerned. Organizations of national scope are involved in such cases where initiatives are conceived of as having a national impact/mission and one of measuring and/or promoting quality of national scientific publications. Second, there appears to be more publishing in the SSH by means of the university and public/national infrastructures (e.g. national portals) than there is in the STEM disciplines. Finally, these initiatives are nearly exclusively financed through government/national grants or institutional subsidies and as part of the mission of the universities or libraries, that is paid for through their existing budget. Some of them already demonstrate long-term commitment on behalf of the funding institutions, which support their mission. In general, however, few possess concrete business models and solid financial planning, an area with urgent need of improvement. An exception to this are new initiatives within and outside of Academia with a specific focus to explore sustainable funding models for open access.

In terms of the services provided, most university publishing with respect to journals covers technological infrastructure provision (in Europe largely the open sources software OJS, in the USA Digital Commons repository software powered by BePress and the open source DSpace repository software), training and support, advice on how to start a journal and copyright advice, retro-digitization, indexing, and occasionally provision of DOIs, dissemination, help with graphic design of online publication. Library-led initiatives are largely not involved in the editorial process, which is left to the journal editors, and for the greatest part do not provide production services. In other words, they do not provide two types of services that a traditional publisher does, unless there is a University Press involved. The apparent fragmentation and invisibility of small-scale efforts also indicates that there is more to be done with respect to promotion and marketing of the publications, as well as of the services offered. The work done by libraries in publishing best aligns with their role as a university gateway to knowledge, that is providing access to scientific information, and aligned to the educational mission of the university, and less to that of a publisher, in particular in Europe. A more dynamic publishing environment is felt where University Presses are involved and collaborations with libraries are forged. The press, further, lends 'legitimacy' to library publishing activities and to its aspiring role as a publisher.

Information regarding the organization of university publishing (especially with respect to library-based activities) is not widely and systematically available in Europe. Some countries display rigorous activity among universities, with most universities having their open access publishing initiative set in the library (e.g. Latin American countries, Spain, Italy), and others less so, but there is usually at least a handful of centers of expertise in each country. In some countries (Latin America, France, Canada, Spain) universities have the benefit of services set up by the state to promote their local publishing activities and serve the needs of Universities and scholars. Nonetheless, nearly all of the systematic flow of information on such initiatives derives from work carried out by American university libraries and related organizations that have since long articulated the need for more systematization and collaboration in view of improving and scaling up the work, as well as raising its impact and significance with the research community. There is ample room for improvement in this area in Europe, which will help capitalize on achievements, strengthen university publishing as part of the mission and responsibility of the university, as well as dispense with the general impression that such efforts, at the university or national level, are 'not professional enough' and pertain to publications of lower quality than those of commercial publishers.

Encouragingly, there is concurrently intense experimentation and innovation taking place, with respect to open access journals, as well as to monographs, in particular in the Humanities. New scholar-led publishing companies emerge, with transparent procedures and business models that provide services to universities and researchers (Open Library of the Humanities, Ubiquity Press, Open Book Publishers, the Collabra and Luminos services by the University of California Press, among others). New collaborations between libraries and existing university Presses lead to a revival of University Presses, in Europe as well, and/or to the establishment of new open access University Presses (e.g. UCL Press, Stockholm 5 University Press). It is optimistic that most new ventures launched in the last couple of years, especially the private scholar-led ones, are launched with the necessity for a fair and transparent scholarly communications ecosystem and one that is financially sustainable.

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Waller, Mira, William M. Cross, and Lillian Rigling. "The Open Textbook Toolkit: Seeding Successful Partnerships for Collaboration between Academic Libraries and University Presses." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 49, no. 1 (2017): 53-65.,

Ward, Monica, and Joanie Lavoie. "A Library-Publisher Partnership for Open Access: Building An Innovative Relationship Between Scholarly Publishers And Academic Libraries." LIBER Quarterly 25, no. 4 (2016): 189-204.

This article presents an overview of a strategic partnership undertaken by the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN) and the Érudit Consortium (Érudit) to support the move towards open access for Canadian francophone scholarly journals.

CRKN and Érudit have had a relationship through a traditional commercial subscription model since 2008. In 2014, the two organizations recognized the need for a new relationship that would address two major challenges: the fragility of the Canadian not-for-profit scholarly publishing environment and the increasing pressure from libraries and funding agencies for scholarly journals to move towards open access. Érudit and CRKN have worked collaboratively to create an innovative partnership, which provides a framework for a new relationship between publishers and libraries, and helps to provide financial support to Canadian publishers during the transition to a fully open access model.

This paper presents the perspectives of the two organizations involved in the partnership by outlining the common goals, objectives, and strategy, as well as the differing needs and perspectives of libraries and publishers. It summarizes the key aspects of the partnership as well as the challenges faced. Through this case study, the authors demonstrate how university libraries can play an active role in working with journals to support open access to research.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Watkinson, Charles. "Why Marriage Matters: A North American Perspective on Press/Library Partnerships." Learned Publishing 29, no. S1 (2016): 342-347.,

Wittenberg, Kate. "The Electronic Publishing Initiative at Columbia (EPIC): A University-Based Collaboration in Digital Scholarly Communication." Learned Publishing 14, no. 1 (2001): 29-32.

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About the Author

Charles W. Bailey, Jr. is the publisher of Digital Scholarship and a digital artist.

Bailey has over 30 years of information and instructional technology experience, including 24 years of managerial experience in academic libraries. From 2004 to 2007, he was the Assistant Dean for Digital Library Planning and Development at the University of Houston Libraries. From 1987 to 2003, he served as Assistant Dean/Director for Systems at the University of Houston Libraries.

Previously, he served as Head, Systems and Research Services at the Health Sciences Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Systems Librarian at the Milton S. Eisenhower Library, The Johns Hopkins University; User Documentation Specialist at the OCLC Online Computer Library Center; and Media Library Manager at the Learning Resources Center, SUNY College at Oswego.

Bailey has discussed his career in an interview in Preservation, Digital Technology & Culture. See Bailey's vita for more details.

Bailey has been an open access publisher for over 29 years. In 1989, Bailey established PACS-L, a discussion list about public-access computers in libraries, and The Public-Access Computer Systems Review, the first open access journal in the field of library and information science. He served as PACS-L Moderator until November 1991 and as Editor-in-Chief of The Public-Access Computer Systems Review until the end of 1996.

In 1990, Bailey and Dana Rooks established Public-Access Computer Systems News, an electronic newsletter, and Bailey co-edited this publication until 1992.

In 1992, he founded the PACS-P mailing list for announcing the publication of selected e-serials, and he moderated this list until 2007.

In 1996, he established the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography (SEPB), an open access book that was updated 80 times.

In 2001, he added the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Weblog, which announces relevant new publications, to SEPB.

In 2001, he was selected as a team member of Current Cites, and he has subsequently been a frequent contributor of reviews to this monthly e-serial.

In 2005, he published the Open Access Bibliography: Liberating Scholarly Literature with E-prints and Open Access Journals with the Association of Research Libraries (also a website).

In 2005, Bailey established Digital Scholarship (, which provides information and commentary about digital copyright, digital curation, digital repository, open access, research data management, scholarly communication, and other digital information issues. Digital Scholarship's digital publications are open access. Its publications are under Creative Commons licenses.

At that time, he also established DigitalKoans, a weblog that covers the same topics as Digital Scholarship.

From April 2005 through May 2018, Digital Scholarship had over 11.6 million visitors from 240 Internet country domains and over 31.6 million page views (excluding spiders).

During this period, Bailey published the following books and book supplements: the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography: 2008 Annual Edition (2009), Digital Scholarship 2009 (2010), Transforming Scholarly Publishing through Open Access: A Bibliography (2010), the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography 2010 (2011), the Digital Curation and Preservation Bibliography 2010 (2011), the Institutional Repository and ETD Bibliography 2011 (2011), the Digital Curation Bibliography: Preservation and Stewardship of Scholarly Works (2012), and the Digital Curation Bibliography: Preservation and Stewardship of Scholarly Works, 2012 Supplement (2013).

He also published and updated the following bibliographies and webliographies as websites with links to freely available works: the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography (1996-2011), the Electronic Theses and Dissertations Bibliography (2005-2012), the Google Books Bibliography (2005-2011), the Institutional Repository Bibliography (2009-2011), the Open Access Journals Bibliography (2010), the Digital Curation and Preservation Bibliography (2010-2011), the E-science and Academic Libraries Bibliography (2011), the Digital Curation Resource Guide (2012), the Research Data Curation Bibliography (2012-2018), the Altmetrics Bibliography (2013), and the Transforming Peer Review Bibliography (2014).

In 2011, he established the LinkedIn Digital Curation Group.

For more details, see the "Digital Scholarship Publications Overview."

In 2010, Bailey was given a Best Content by an Individual Award by The Charleston Advisor. In 2003, he was named as one of Library Journal's "Movers & Shakers." In 1993, he was awarded the first LITA/Library Hi Tech Award for Outstanding Communication for Continuing Education in Library and Information Science. In 1992, Bailey received a Network Citizen Award from the Apple Library.

In 1973, Bailey won a Wallace Stevens Poetry Award. He is the author of The Cave of Hypnos: Early Poems, which includes several poems that won that award.

Bailey has written over 30 papers about digital copyright, expert systems, institutional repositories, open access, scholarly communication, and other topics.

He has served on the editorial boards of Information Technology and Libraries, Library Software Review, and Reference Services Review. He was the founding Vice-Chairperson of the LITA Imagineering Interest Group.

Bailey is a digital artist, and he has made over 500 digital artworks freely available on social media sites, such as 500px and Flickr, under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial licenses. A list of his artwoks that includes links to high resolution JPEG images on Flickr is available.

He holds master's degrees in information and library science and instructional media and technology.

You can contact him at: publisher at

You can follow Bailey at these URLs: