Archive for the 'Open Science' Category

Take Action: Fair Access to Science and Technology Research (FASTR) Act Being Marked Up

Posted in Legislation and Government Regulation, Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on July 29th, 2015

The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research (FASTR) Act is being marked up.

Here's an excerpt from the SPARC announcement:

After a month of intense conversations and negotiations, the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee (HSGAC) will bring the "Fair Access to Science and Technology Research (FASTR) Act" up for mark-up on Wednesday, July 29th. The language that will be considered is an amended version of FASTR, officially known as the 'Johnson-Carper Substitute Amendment,' which was officially filed by the HSGAC leadership late on Friday afternoon, per committee rules.

There are two major changes from the original bill language to be particularly aware of. Specifically, the amendment

  • Replaces the six month embargo period with "no later than 12 months, but preferably sooner," as anticipated; and
  • Provides a mechanism for stakeholders to petition federal agencies to 'adjust' the embargo period if the 12 months does not serve "the public, industries, and the scientific community."

To support the bill and communicate your concerns, see: "Help Move FASTR" "Secure Open Access to Taxpayer-Funded Research"

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    "Accelerating Scientific Publication in Biology"

    Posted in Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals, Self-Archiving on July 22nd, 2015

    Ronald D Vale has self-archived "Accelerating Scientific Publication in Biology."

    Here's an excerpt:

    Our analysis suggests that publication practices have changed considerably in the life sciences over the past thirty years. Considerably more experimental data is now required for publication, and the average time required for graduate students to publish their first paper has increased and is approaching the desirable duration of Ph.D. training. Since publication is generally a requirement for career progression, schemes to reduce the time of graduate student and postdoctoral training may be difficult to implement without also considering new mechanisms for accelerating communication of their work. The increasing time to publication also delays potential catalytic effects that ensue when many scientists have access to new information. The time has come for the life scientists, funding agencies, and publishers to discuss how to communicate new findings in a way that best serves the interests of the public and scientific community.

    See also: "Thoughts on Ron Vale's 'Accelerating Scientific Publication in Biology'" by Michael Eisen.

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      "When Data Sharing Gets Close to 100%: What Human Paleogenetics Can Teach the Open Science Movement"

      Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on April 1st, 2015

      Paolo Anagnostou et al. have published "When Data Sharing Gets Close to 100%: What Human Paleogenetics Can Teach the Open Science Movement" in .

      Here's an excerpt:

      This study analyzes data sharing regarding mitochondrial, Y chromosomal and autosomal polymorphisms in a total of 162 papers on ancient human DNA published between 1988 and 2013. The estimated sharing rate was not far from totality (97.6% ± 2.1%) and substantially higher than observed in other fields of genetic research (evolutionary, medical and forensic genetics). Both a questionnaire-based survey and the examination of Journals' editorial policies suggest that this high sharing rate cannot be simply explained by the need to comply with stakeholders requests. Most data were made available through body text, but the use of primary databases increased in coincidence with the introduction of complete mitochondrial and next-generation sequencing methods. Our study highlights three important aspects. First, our results imply that researchers' awareness of the importance of openness and transparency for scientific progress may complement stakeholders' policies in achieving very high sharing rates. Second, widespread data sharing does not necessarily coincide with a prevalent use of practices which maximize data findability, accessibility, useability and preservation. A detailed look at the different ways in which data are released can be very useful to detect failures to adopt the best sharing modalities and understand how to correct them. Third and finally, the case of human paleogenetics tells us that a widespread awareness of the importance of Open Science may be important to build reliable scientific practices even in the presence of complex experimental challenges.

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        "Persistent, Global Identity for Scientists via ORCID"

        Posted in Metadata, Open Science on February 24th, 2015

        August E. Evrard et al. have self-archived "Persistent, Global Identity for Scientists via ORCID."

        Here's an excerpt:

        Scientists have an inherent interest in claiming their contributions to the scholarly record, but the fragmented state of identity management across the landscape of astronomy, physics, and other fields makes highlighting the contributions of any single individual a formidable and often frustratingly complex task. The problem is exacerbated by the expanding variety of academic research products and the growing footprints of large collaborations and interdisciplinary teams. In this essay, we outline the benefits of a unique scholarly identifier with persistent value on a global scale and we review astronomy and physics engagement with the Open Researcher and Contributor iD (ORCID) service as a solution.

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          "Why Principal Investigators Funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health Publish in the Public Library of Science Journals"

          Posted in Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on January 23rd, 2015

          Nancy Pontika has published "Why Principal Investigators Funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health Publish in the Public Library of Science Journals" in Information Research.

          Here's an excerpt:

          The Institutes-funded investigators submitted to the Public Library of Science journals because they favour the high impact factor, fast publication speed, fair peer-review system and the articles/ immediate open access availability.

          Conclusions. The requirements of the National Institutes' public access policy do not influence the investigators' decision to submit to one of the Public Library of Science journals and do not increase their familiarity with open access publishing options.

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            "Science 2.0 Repositories: Time for a Change in Scholarly Communication"

            Posted in Digital Repositories, Open Science on January 19th, 2015

            Massimiliano Assante, et al. have published "Science 2.0 Repositories: Time for a Change in Scholarly Communication" in D-Lib Magazine.

            Here's an excerpt:

            Information and communication technology (ICT) advances in research infrastructures are continuously changing the way research and scientific communication are performed. Scientists, funders, and organizations are moving the paradigm of "research publishing" well beyond traditional articles. The aim is to pursue an holistic approach where publishing includes any product (e.g. publications, datasets, experiments, software, web sites, blogs) resulting from a research activity and relevant to the interpretation, evaluation, and reuse of the activity or part of it. The implementation of this vision is today mainly inspired by literature scientific communication workflows, which separate the "where" research is conducted from the "where" research is published and shared. In this paper we claim that this model cannot fit well with scientific communication practice envisaged in Science 2.0 settings. We present the idea of Science 2.0 Repositories (SciRepos), which meet publishing requirements arising in Science 2.0 by blurring the distinction between research life-cycle and research publishing. SciRepos interface with the ICT services of research infrastructures to intercept and publish research products while providing researchers with social networking tools for discovery, notification, sharing, discussion, and assessment of research products.

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              "Nevermind the Data, Where Are the Protocols?"

              Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Science on November 19th, 2014

              David Crotty has published "Nevermind the Data, Where Are the Protocols?" in The Scholarly Kitchen.

              This is more complicated than you might think. The smallest variations in technique or reagents can lead to major differences in results. The scant information offered by most journals' Materials and Methods sections makes replication fairly impossible. Often when describing a technique, an author will merely cite a previous paper where they used that technique…which also cites a previous paper, which also cites a previous paper and the wild goose chase is on. Methodologies evolve over time, and even if you can track down the original source of the technique, it likely has changed a great deal over the years.

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                Open Science Commons

                Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Science on November 13th, 2014

                The European Grid Infrastructure has released Open Science Commons.

                Here's an excerpt:

                With this paper, the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) proposes the Open Science Commons as a new approach to digital research, tackling policy challenges and embracing open science as a new paradigm for knowledge creation and collaboration. EGI invites organisations from the research landscape to join it in this journey to develop these concepts, and through them to advance the implementation of the European Research Area.

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                  All Harvard Schools Now Have Open Access Policies

                  Posted in Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Self-Archiving on October 24th, 2014

                  With the adoption of an open access policy in June by the Harvard Medical School, all Harvard schools now have open access policies.

                  Here’s an excerpt from the announcement:

                  Harvard Medical School adopted an open-access policy on June 18, 2014, by a unanimous vote of the Faculty Council. The new policy covers both "quad"-based and clinical faculty. Now all Harvard schools have open-access policies.

                  Like the other Harvard policies, the Medical School policy insures that faculty members automatically retain a license to share their research papers freely through DASH (Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard), the University’s open-access repository. Faculty also have the option to waive this license for any article, preserving their freedom to submit new work to the journals of their choice. When faculty write articles covered by the Medical School policy and the policy at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), they need only deposit once to comply with both.

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                    "Journals and ‘Journals’: Taking a Deeper Look"

                    Posted in Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on October 14th, 2014

                    Walt Crawford has published "Journals and 'Journals': Taking a Deeper Look" in Cites & Insights: Crawford at Large.

                    Here's an excerpt from the announcement:

                    This essay builds on the July 2014 Cites & Insights investigation by including full article counts for the thousands of OA journals in Beall's lists (that is, those that actually publish articles!) and those published by OASPA members, extending the article counts back to 2011, and modifying the groups of journals to be more meaningful.

                    It also introduces the rough numbers for the new set of Gold OA journals that will form the heart of Part 2 of this two-part essay (the December 2014 C&I), namely more than three thousand journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals as of May 7, 2014 that aren't in one of the other two sets, that do have enough English in the interface for me to analyze them and that are not on biology-related or human medicine-related topics.

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                      "Putting Open Science into Practice: A Social Dilemma?"

                      Posted in Open Access, Open Science on September 10th, 2014

                      Kaja Scheliga and Sascha Friesike have published "Putting Open Science into Practice: A Social Dilemma?" in First Monday.

                      Here's an excerpt from the press release:

                      Digital technologies carry the promise of transforming science and opening up the research process. We interviewed researchers from a variety of backgrounds about their attitudes towards and experiences with openness in their research practices. We observe a considerable discrepancy between the concept of open science and scholarly reality. While many researchers support open science in theory, the individual researcher is confronted with various difficulties when putting open science into practice. We analyse the major obstacles to open science and group them into two main categories: individual obstacles and systemic obstacles. We argue that the phenomenon of open science can be seen through the prism of a social dilemma: what is in the collective best interest of the scientific community is not necessarily in the best interest of the individual scientist. We discuss the possibilities of transferring theoretical solutions to social dilemma problems to the realm of open science.

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                        "Research Data Sharing: Developing a Stakeholder-Driven Model for Journal Policies"

                        Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on June 5th, 2014

                        Paul Sturges et al. have self-archived "Research Data Sharing: Developing a Stakeholder-Driven Model for Journal Policies."

                        Here's an excerpt:

                        The Journal Research Data (JoRD) Project was a JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) funded feasibility study on the possible shape of a central service on journal research data policies. The objectives of the study included, amongst other considerations: to identify the current state of journal data sharing policies and to investigate the views and practices of stakeholders to data sharing. The project confirmed that a large percentage of journals do not have a policy on data sharing, and that there are inconsistencies between the traceable journal data sharing policies. Such a state leaves authors unsure of whether they should deposit data relating to articles and where and how to share that data. In the absence of a consolidated infrastructure for the easy sharing of data, a journal data sharing model policy was developed. The model policy was developed from comparing the quantitative information gathered from analysing existing journal data policies with qualitative data collected from the stakeholders concerned. This article summarises the information gathered, outlines the process by which the model was developed and presents the model journal data sharing policy in full.

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