Archive for the 'Open Science' Category

"Does Online Access Promote Research in Developing Countries? Empirical Evidence from Article-Level Data"

Posted in Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on November 29th, 2016

Frank Mueller-Langer et al. have self-archived "Does Online Access Promote Research in Developing Countries? Empirical Evidence from Article-Level Data."

Here's an excerpt:

Universities in developing countries have rarely been able to subscribe to academic journals in the past. The "Online Access to Research in the Environment" initiative (OARE) provides institutions in developing countries with free online access to more than 5,700 environmental science journals. Here we analyze the effect of OARE registration on scientific output by research institutions in five developing countries. We apply a difference-in-difference estimation method using panel data for 18,955 journal articles from 798 research institutions. We find that online access via OARE increases publication output by at least 43% while lower-ranked institutions located in remote areas benefit less.

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"The Durability and Fragility of Knowledge Infrastructures: Lessons Learned from Astronomy"

Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Digital Curation & Digital Preservation, Open Science on November 3rd, 2016

Christine L. Borgman, Peter T. Darch, Ashley E. Sands, and Milena S. Golshan have self-archived "The Durability and Fragility of Knowledge Infrastructures: Lessons Learned from Astronomy."

Here's an excerpt:

Infrastructures are not inherently durable or fragile, yet all are fragile over the long term. Durability requires care and maintenance of individual components and the links between them. Astronomy is an ideal domain in which to study knowledge infrastructures, due to its long history, transparency, and accumulation of observational data over a period of centuries. Research reported here draws upon a long-term study of scientific data practices to ask questions about the durability and fragility of infrastructures for data in astronomy. Methods include interviews, ethnography, and document analysis. As astronomy has become a digital science, the community has invested in shared instruments, data standards, digital archives, metadata and discovery services, and other relatively durable infrastructure components. Several features of data practices in astronomy contribute to the fragility of that infrastructure. These include different archiving practices between ground- and space-based missions, between sky surveys and investigator-led projects, and between observational and simulated data. Infrastructure components are tightly coupled, based on international agreements. However, the durability of these infrastructures relies on much invisible work—cataloging, metadata, and other labor conducted by information professionals. Continual investments in care and maintenance of the human and technical components of these infrastructures are necessary for sustainability.

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"On the Cost of Knowledge: Evaluating the Boycott against Elsevier"

Posted in Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on October 20th, 2016

Tom Heyman Pieter Moors, and Gert Storms have published "On the Cost of Knowledge: Evaluating the Boycott against Elsevier" in Frontiers in Research Metrics and Analytics.

Here's an excerpt:

To get an idea about the success rate of the "won't publish" resolution, we checked signatories' publication history after they signed the petition. Using ResearchGate, Google Scholar, Academia.edu, LinkedIn, ScienceDirect, and lab or personal websites, we were able to compile a bibliography for a large sample of "won't publish" signatories. Due to the time-consuming nature of this research, we limited ourselves to two subject areas, Chemistry and Psychology, each with approximately 500 signatories.

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"SCOAP3 Journals Double Downloads"

Posted in Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Research Libraries, Scholarly Journals on October 12th, 2016

SCOAP3 has released "SCOAP3 Journals Double Downloads."

Here's an excerpt from the announcement:

The four largest journals participating in SCOAP3, two published by Elsevier and two by SpringerNature in partnership with the Italian Physical Society (SIF), and the Italian Institute for Advanced Studies (SISSA) have now analysed their logs to understand the impact of SCOAP3.

Elsevier announced that downloads to their two journals, Physics Letters B and Nuclear Physics B have doubled since they became Open Access at the start of SCOAP3 in January 2014. This increase is remarkable as SCOAP3 covers the most recent 3,500 articles in the journals, while most of the historic content of over 77,000 articles, is available to subscribers.

SpringerNature announced that since January 2014 they have observed a doubling of downloads across their two learned-society journals participating in SCOAP3: European Physical Journal C and the Journal of High Energy Physics.

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"How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship between Open Science Policies and Research Practice"

Posted in Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on October 11th, 2016

Nadine Levin et al. have published "How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship between Open Science Policies and Research Practice " in the Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society

Here's an excerpt:

This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of "openness." . . . This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U.K. researchers in systems biology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, which were conducted between September 2013 and February 2014. Through an analysis of the interview transcripts, we identify seven core themes that characterize researchers' understanding of openness in science and nine factors that shape the practice of openness in research.

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"Truth in Science Publishing: A Personal Perspective"

Posted in Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on September 8th, 2016

Thomas C. Südhof has published "Truth in Science Publishing: A Personal Perspective" in PLoS Biology.

Here's an excerpt:

Scientists, public servants, and patient advocates alike increasingly question the validity of published scientific results, endangering the public's acceptance of science. Here, I argue that emerging flaws in the integrity of the peer review system are largely responsible. Distortions in peer review are driven by economic forces and enabled by a lack of accountability of journals, editors, and authors. One approach to restoring trust in the validity of published results may be to establish basic rules that render peer review more transparent, such as publishing the reviews (a practice already embraced by some journals) and monitoring not only the track records of authors but also of editors and journals.

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"The Journal Article as a Means to Share Data: A Content Analysis of Supplementary Materials from Two Disciplines"

Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on July 20th, 2016

Jeremy Kenyon, Nancy Sprague, and Edward Flathers have published "The Journal Article as a Means to Share Data: a Content Analysis of Supplementary Materials from Two Disciplines" in the Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication.

Here's an excerpt:

INTRODUCTION The practice of publishing supplementary materials with journal articles is becoming increasingly prevalent across the sciences. We sought to understand better the content of these materials by investigating the differences between the supplementary materials published by authors in the geosciences and plant sciences. METHODS We conducted a random stratified sampling of four articles from each of 30 journals published in 2013. In total, we examined 297 supplementary data files for a range of different factors. RESULTS We identified many similarities between the practices of authors in the two fields, including the formats used (Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, PDFs) and the small size of the files. There were differences identified in the content of the supplementary materials: the geology materials contained more maps and machine-readable data; the plant science materials included much more tabular data and multimedia content. DISCUSSION Our results suggest that the data shared through supplementary files in these fields may not lend itself to reuse. Code and related scripts are not often shared, nor is much 'raw' data. Instead, the files often contain summary data, modified for human reading and use. CONCLUSION Given these and other differences, our results suggest implications for publishers, librarians, and authors, and may require shifts in behavior if effective data sharing is to be realized.

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Open Access: The Beast That No-One Could—or Should—Control?

Posted in Open Access, Open Science, Publishing, Scholarly Journals on June 9th, 2016

Stephen Curry has self-archived "Open Access: The Beast That No-One Could—or Should—Control?"

Here's an excerpt:

To set the scene, I will begin with a brief description of the open access movement and recent policy initiatives before discussing their impact on the attitudes of scientists towards the broader open science agenda and public engagement. I will then consider the effects of open access (and allied moves) on the authority and independence of science—concepts that are perturbed by the increasingly blurred boundary between the academy and the public. Lastly, I will focus attention on the various publics that are actively seeking to engage with science and scientists, mainly through advocacy groups or the growing ranks of citizen scientists; here, while the impact of open access appears relatively modest, it has the capacity to spring surprises that point to future growth.

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"A Vision for Open Cyber-Scholarly Infrastructures"

Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Access, Open Science on June 8th, 2016

Costantino Thanos has published "A Vision for Open Cyber-Scholarly Infrastructures" in Publications.

Here's an excerpt:

The characteristics of modern science, i.e., data-intensive, multidisciplinary, open, and heavily dependent on Internet technologies, entail the creation of a linked scholarly record that is online and open. Instrumental in making this vision happen is the development of the next generation of Open Cyber-Scholarly Infrastructures (OCIs), i.e., enablers of an open, evolvable, and extensible scholarly ecosystem. The paper delineates the evolving scenario of the modern scholarly record and describes the functionality of future OCIs as well as the radical changes in scholarly practices including new reading, learning, and information-seeking practices enabled by OCIs.

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"Fifty Shades of Open"

Posted in Open Access, Open Science, Open Source Software on May 3rd, 2016

Jeffrey Pomerantz and Robin Peek have published "Fifty Shades of Open" in First Monday.

Here's an excerpt:

Open source. Open access. Open society. Open knowledge. Open government. Even open food. The word "open" has been applied to a wide variety of words to create new terms, some of which make sense, and some not so much. This essay disambiguates the many meanings of the word "open" as it is used in a wide range of contexts.

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"Research Library Associations Endorse Open Data Accord"

Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Open Science, Research Libraries on May 2nd, 2016

ARL has released "Research Library Associations Endorse Open Data Accord."

Here's an excerpt:

IARLA [International Alliance of Research Library Associations] views the Science International accord on "Open Data in a Big Data World" as an important step towards creating and enabling this common vision of the importance of open data. In setting out principles for open data that are derived from emerging practices within the scientific community, the accord lends the voice of a key stakeholder to the case for open data and provides a practical road map for the implementation of open data at the global level.

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"Are Scientific Data Repositories Coping with Research Data Publishing?"

Posted in Data Curation, Open Data, and Research Data Management, Digital Repositories, Open Science on May 2nd, 2016

Massimiliano Assante et al. have published "Are Scientific Data Repositories Coping with Research Data Publishing?" in Data Science Journal.

Here's an excerpt:

This study analyses the solutions offered by generalist scientific data repositories, i.e., repositories supporting the deposition of any type of research data. These repositories cannot make any assumption on the application domain. They are actually called to face with the almost open ended typologies of data used in science. The current practices promoted by such repositories are analysed with respect to eight key aspects of data publishing, i.e., dataset formatting, documentation, licensing, publication costs, validation, availability, discovery and access, and citation. From this analysis it emerges that these repositories implement well consolidated practices and pragmatic solutions for literature repositories. These practices and solutions can not totally meet the needs of management and use of datasets resources, especially in a context where rapid technological changes continuously open new exploitation prospects.

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